Closed Projects

Project Sort descending Description Duration Sort ascending Contact
Geothermal Reservoir Processes: Towards the implementation of research into the creation and sustainable use of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (GEOTHERM-II)

The pressing need to rethink the Swiss Energy Mix following the decision to phase out nuclear power in Switzerland by 2034 lends added importance to accelerating the development of Enhanced…

2013-2016 Dr. Peter Burgherr
Modelling frequencies and expected maximum consequences of catastrophic events in Switzerland based on historical observations (MODCAT-CH)

In this project an analytical approach is developed and implemented to evaluate the frequencies and associated consequences of selected hazard scenarios for Switzerland based on historical data.…

2013-2014 Dr. Peter Burgherr
Oil Spill Risk Assessment for Different Regions and Facilities (SPILL-RISK)

The current study can be divided in two distinct phases. In the first phase the collection and preparation of spill data by means of PSI’s Energy-related Severe Accident Database (ENSAD) is…

2013-2014 Dr. Peter Burgherr
Solar Storm Impact on Critical Infrastructure (SoSCI)

Tsunamis, hurricanes, flooding, earthquakes can lead to hundreds of fatalities and billions of economic losses. In the last decades, critical infrastructures were developed in the way to ensure…

2013-2014 Dr. Peter Burgherr
TA Swiss Deep Geothermal Energy (TA Swiss DGE)

Deep geothermal energy is a potential resource of both heat and electricity generation that is extremely large, nearly CO2 free, domestically sourced and probably reliable.

2013-2014 Dr. Peter Burgherr
OPTImization of the use of Wood As a Renewable Energy Source (OPTIWARES)

OPTIWARES is a joint CCES-CCEM project focusing on wood combustion. Wood combustion and other biomass combustion represent renewable energy sources, and contribute to reduce global CO2 emissions…

2012-2016 Dr. Thomas Heck
Scenario to Risk (STOR)

STOR processes, analyzes and visualizes expert data gathered in the project “Risks Switzerland". For each hazard different scenarios are considered for which estimates the probability (frequency)…

2012 Dr. Peter Burgherr
Technology-centered Electric Mobility Assessment (THELMA)

The THELMA project is a large scale, ambitious project aimed at an integrated assessment of a significant penetration of electric vehicles into the Swiss transport sector, and the impacts on both…

2010-2014 Dr. Peter Burgherr
Carbon dioxide management in power generation (CARMA)

Within the framework of future energy scenarios, the CARMA project aims to explore the potential and feasibility of Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) systems in Switzerland. Furthermore, it…

2009-2012 Christian Bauer
Techno-economic Comparison of Ultimate Disposal Facilities for CO2 and Nuclear Waste

The Technology Assessment group takes part in the IAEA Coordinated Research Project I12004. The TA group contributes a comparative assessment of nuclear and fossil electricity generation…

2008-2012 Christian Bauer
IMpact of Biomass burning AerosoL on Air quality aNd ClimatE (IMBALANCE)

In the IMBALANCE project the physical and chemical properties of emissions caused by the intended burning of biomass for cooking and heating will be comprehensively characterized in order to allow…

2008-2012 Dr. Thomas Heck
Security of Energy Considering its Uncertainty, Risks and Economic implications (SECURE)

The SECURE project develops appropriate tools for evaluating the vulnerability of the EU to the different energy supply risks, and for promoting the optimization of EU energy insecurity mitigation…

2008-2010 Dr. Peter Burgherr
Cost Assessment for Sustainable Energy Systems

This project aims to provide a complete and consistent assessment of the full cost of energy sources, i.e. the external cost plus the private cost, which is of paramount importance for energy and…

2006-2008 Christian Bauer
Multi-disciplinary evaluation of future electricity generation technologies

A broad portfolio of eighteen fossil, nuclear and renewable electricity generation technologies, together with their associated energy chains, were the focus of a comprehensive LCA based project…

2005-2006 Christian Bauer
New Energy Externalities Developments for Sustainability (NEEDS)

The NEEDS consortium included 66 partners, representing 26 Countries (12 Member States from the EU15, 9 new EU Member States, 3 Mediterranean Countries, and 2 Countries from other parts of the…

2004-2009 Dr. Peter Burgherr
Assessment of natural gas accident risks

This study was commissioned by the Schweizerischer Verein des Gas- und Wasserfaches (SVGW). Its framework encompassed a primarily experience-based comparison of accident risks associated with the…

2004-2005 Dr. Peter Burgherr
Swiss Energy Perspectives 2035 – New Renewables and New Nuclear Technologies

The Technology Assessment group conducted a study for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on potentials and costs of electricity generation by means of “new” renewables and new nuclear…

2004-2005 Dr. Peter Burgherr
Sustainability of electricity supply technologies under German conditions

This study was commissioned by the Internationale Länderkommission Kerntechnik (ILK, International Committee on Nuclear Technology). The Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) carried out a limited scope…

2003-2004 Dr. Peter Burgherr
Extension of Accounting Framework and Policy Applications

This project is a continuation of the ExternE project series for the analysis of the external costs of energy. Its objectives include (1) improving, validating and extending the methodology of…

2002-2004 Dr. Peter Burgherr
New Elements for the Assessment of External Costs from Energy Technologies (NewExt)

NewExt is the follow-up of the European Commission’s former ExternE project which developed an accounting framework to quantify the external costs from energy conversion. Due to various…

2001-2003 Dr. Peter Burgherr
China Energy Technology Program (CETP)

Objective of the Program

1999-2003 Dr. Peter Burgherr
Project Description Duration

Life Cycle Assessment of Power-to-X in the Swiss residential sector

Swiss net-zero GHG emission goals require a phase-out of fossil fuels. While the focus in research has often been on a transition of mobility and industry so far, also the residential sector has to replace its traditional oil and natural gas heating systems. Besides direct electrification using heat pumps, also the use of hydrogen, synthetic natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons – all of them produced using renewable electricity – represents a “low-carbon” option.

Within this project, the environmental performance of this so called “indirect electrification”, compared to alternative options for residential heat and electricity supply such as heat pumps and wood boilers, will be quantified by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA).

The activities are carried out on behalf of the City of Zurich, the Canton Basel-Stadt and the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN).


Carbon Dioxide Removal: LCA and MRV

Together with the Sustainability in Business Lab (sus.lab) at ETH Zurich, PSI Technology Assessment evaluates different options for Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR). The evaluation concerns the environmental performance of CDR, which is quantified by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), and so-called Monitoring, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) schemes. 

We will quantify the net-effectiveness of different CDR options in terms of permanent CO2 removal from the atmosphere as well as potential environmental co-benefits and trade-offs coming along with CO2 removal. We will review the current landscape of MRV schemes, which are the basis for CO2 removal certification, highlight current best-practices and shortcomings and outline a way forward for CDR markets to ensure high quality and reliability based on scientific evidence. The activities are carried out on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN).


The WISER flagship aims to build a digital ecosystem in which public and private stakeholders can contribute and share greenhouse gas (GHG) knowledge. By making different GHG data sources and frameworks comparable, understandable and verified, foundations will be created for organisations to take targeted measures to improve and accelerate their decarbonisation efforts. Decentralised knowledge on GHG emissions is thus shared more easily to analyse the carbon footprints (CF) of supply chains. TAG is responsible for the calculation engine of WISER, including novel approaches to sensitivity analysis and hybridization.


Akula is a library for global sensitivity analysis of large semi- and nonlinear systems, with an emphasis on iterative screening and progressively more complex algorithms as the number of possibly influential parameters is reduced. It is compatible with the Brightway life cycle assessment framework, and allows for the addition of correlated uncertainties into databases such as ecoinvent.


The NFP73 Co-Creation Lab Data Transparency for Sustainable Production will allow for the creation of personalized carbon footprints of Swiss households. The latest ecoinvent and EXIOBASE databases will be hybridized together, and combined with other data from NFP73 projects, to create the most recent and complete picture of the impact of products and services in Switzerland. This consolidation will be done in open source software, to allow other to make similar databases for other countries or subject domains. The database will presented in a web tool that will allow individual consumers to see their personal hotspots and opportunities for meaningful changes.


Advanced geothermal systems have the potential to make the Swiss energy system more resilient by providing decarbonized and decentralized domestic heating and electrical power. This helps consolidate an increasingly solar and wind-based Swiss energy supply system, improving its resilience. While the Flagship focuses on developing novel and advanced geothermal systems, it also considers techno-economic, environmental, societal and life-cycle-assessment aspects of all primary energy sources, thus leading to geothermal systems development, energy policy recommendations for Switzerland and new energy business models.

 DemoUpCARMA DemoUpCARMA is a pilot project lead by ETH Zurich. It aims to demonstrate the implementation and scale-up of two pathways leading to negative CO2 emissions, i.e. a long-term removal of CO2 from the atmosphere: (1) CO2 utilization and permanent storage in primary and recycled concrete in Switzerland using a novel technology, (2) CO2 transport and permanent storage in a geological reservoir abroad. DemoUpCARMA will assess the optimal design of these pathways and their upscaling potential considering technological, economic, environmental, regulatory, political, and societal factors in the mid- to long-term. Carbon dioxide removal is an integral component to compensate for residual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to reduce Switzerland’s GHG emissions to net zero by 2050, and thus reach the country’s climate goals. 2021-2023
SHELTERED This project will evaluate the role and perspectives of sustainable chemical transportation fuels within a “net-zero” Swiss energy system. To this end, techno-economic, environmental and social life cycle assessment of a comprehensive portfolio of chemical fuels – including hydrogen, biogenic, sun-to-liquid, and power-to-gas/liquid fuels – will be performed and integrated in a scenario-driven energy system analysis. Due to limited sustainable primary energy resources for such fuel production in Switzerland, the analysis will be carried out on a global level to identify plausible sources and locations for fuel production and import pathways. The following questions will be answered: (1) Which transportation modes will have to rely (partially) on chemical fuels due to lack of direct electrification options? (2) Which of these fuels and which supply pathways are sustainable considering economic, environmental, and social criteria? (3) What is the role of these fuels in the Swiss energy system to meet the net-zero emission goals? 2021-2024
Hyspi The HySPI project is funded by the French agency for Energy and aims to provide a methodological framework to analyze and quantify, in a systemic and prospective manner, the environmental impacts of the decarbonization strategy of H2 production used by the industry in France.  2021-2022
SURE SURE is part of SFOE’s SWEET programme. Over the next six years, ten research institutions under the project lead of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) will study how Switzerland can ensure its energy supply as sustainable and resilient as possible in the coming decades. For this purpose, SURE adopts a holistic systemic approach to (1) define and establish a wide base of sustainability and resilience criteria with stakeholder involvement; (2) establish an integrated assessment methodology to evaluate pathways across these criteria as well as the response of the system to disruptive events for each pathway; (3) identify those pathways that are technically feasible, economically attractive, acceptable by the broader society and stakeholders, have low implementation risks and low environmental footprint; and (4) recommend policy measures and regulations that could lead to the formulation of supportive strategies to implement a sustainable and resilient transition with high shares of renewable energy. 2021-2027
SynFuels – PSI-Empa Joint Initiative Reducing the impact of aviation on climate change requires the development of synthetic, non-fossil aviation fuels, which can substitute today’s kerosene in a cost-efficient and environmentally sound way. These synthetic fuels can be based on either low-carbon electricity, or biomass. This joint initiative of PSI and Empa aims at further developing novel process technologies for fuel production and in parallel the evaluation of their environmental and economic performance as well as of their role in future net-zero CO2 emission scenarios. 2021-2023
TT1000 This project finalizes development and validation of TwingTec`s first product concept, the TT1000, the world`s first megawatt scale mobile airborne wind energy system together with leading experts from EMPA, ZHAW, EPFL, PSI and Axalp Technologies. PSI’s Technology Assesment Group (TAG) leads Work Package 5 on Life Cycle Assessment and carries out research to evaluate the environmental performance of the TwingTec TT1000. 2021-2023
ROBINSON ROBINSON aims to develop an integrated energy system to help decarbonize (industrialized) islands. To this end, the project will develop and deploy an integrated, cost-efficient, and environmentally friendly energy system that couples thermal, electrical and gas networks, which will optimize the utilization of local renewable energy sources. 2020-2024
IEA Annex 83: Positive Energy Districts IEA Annex 83 aims to develop an in-depth definition of Positive Energy Distric (PED) as well as relevant technologies, planning tools, and decision-making process. PSI contributes to subtask C Organization Principals and Impact Assessment, which will systematically review the sustainability and impact assessment methodology and create planning tools that can be applied to assess PEDs, and in particular on the environmental assessment. IEA Annex 83 has a great synergy with the work package 9 in the H2020 project ATELIER, which focusses on monitoring, impact assessment and evaluation of the positive energy district. 2020-2024
ARIADNE Achieving the goals of the Paris Climate Change Agreement requires not only a complete transformation of energy supply, but also substantial changes in the way energy is consumed. The project Ariadne investigates, how such a transformation can happen within the next decades in Germany: Which policy instruments are actually suitable for this purpose, which technologies are most beneficial for certain economic sectors and applications, and which transformation pathways are the most promising? 2020-2023
Energy System Integration (ESI) platform With the envisaged phase-out of fossil energy carriers and the integration of substantial amounts of intermittent renewables into the Swiss energy supply, the complexity of the energy system will be increasing in the future. Matching energy demand and supply will require energy storage, conversion of different forms of energy, and coupling of different sectors of the energy system. How to address this complexity in the best way with which technologies is the key question investigated by the activities of the so-called ESI-platform at PSI. The Technology Assessment group contributes with its LCA expertise to evaluate the environmental performance of different options. 2021
The potential European hydrogen economy Reducing greenhouse gas emissions towards zero requires a portfolio of low-carbon, non-fossil energy carriers – hydrogen is one among them. This research project, carried out in collaboration with PIK and MIT is investigating the future role and most promising fields of application of hydrogen within the European economy on its way towards net-zero CO2 emissions by mid of this century. Each project partner will contribute with its core expertise – environmental and techno-economic assessment as well as scenario analysis – to create added value and new fact-based insights into a potential future hydrogen economy. 2020-2021
LCA of passenger and freight transport The environmental performance of passenger and freight transport is a key issue in the context of energy and environmental policy and it must be evaluated applying Life Cycle Assessment using state-of-the-art methods and data. Therefore, the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment has commissioned the Technology Assessment group to perform an LCA of individual and public passenger and freight transport vehicles. New inventory data will be fed into the administration’s LCA database and mobitool. 2020-2021
Environmental burdens of synthetic aviation fuels Impacts on climate change from aviation represent an important contribution to the overall carbon footprint of Switzerland. These need to be reduced in line with Swiss climate policy. Synthetic fuels represent one of the options for such a reduction and the Federal Office of Civil Aviation (FOCA) has commissioned the Technology Assessment group to evaluate such synthetic fuels from a life-cycle perspective. 2020-2021
IMPEGA “IMPEGA” stands for “IMPort of Electricity-based GAs”. The import of synthetic fuel to Switzerland to replace fossil fuels represents an option for reduction of Swiss GHG emissions. The IMPEGA project investigates the production of synthetic methane in Iceland, using local hydropower and CO2 from the geothermal power station Hellisheidi, and its transport to Switzerland, where it can be used as heating or transport fuel. 2020-2021
Technology monitoring for SFOE: Hydrogen and electricity storage As part of the technology monitoring the Swiss Federal Office of Energy is carrying out, the Technology Assessment group is performing an analysis of the current status and future perspectives of hydrogen and electricity storage technologies regarding technology development, costs, and environmental burdens. 2020-2021
ATELIER ATELIER is a smart city project that demonstrates Positive Energy Districts (PEDs) within 8 European cities with sustainability and carbon neutrality as guiding ambitions.  2019-2024
IEA Annex 72: Assessing Life Cycle Related Environmental Impacts Caused by Buildings


In recognition of the significance of energy use in buildings, in 1977 the International Energy Agency has established an Implementing Agreement on Energy in Buildings and Communities (EBC). Tasks are undertaken through a series of ‘Annexes’, so called because they are legally established as annexes to the EBC Implementing Agreement. IEA Annex 72 aims to advance the research already conducted within EBC Annexes 56 and 57. It broadens the previous scope by including operational impacts of buildings in use and addressing environmental impacts in addition to primary energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions. It also addresses harmonization issues arising when applying LCA approaches on buildings. PSI is responsible to investigate the influence of future electricity system development on the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Swiss construction materials listed in the Swiss Building LCA database (Koordinationskonferenz der Bau- und Liegenschaftsorgane der öffentlichen Bauherren, also known as KBOB). 2019-2022
ESI Platform The Energy System Integration (ESI) Platform is a real life demonstration comprising multiple energy conversion and storage system at PSI, which offers research and industry an experimental platform where promising approaches can be tested in all their complex connections and interrelations. 2016-2020
NFP73 OASES The NFP73 OASES project aims to quantify the global environmental and social burdens associated with current Swiss production and consumption from a life-cycle perspective. 2018-2021
Transformation Towards Sustainable Transport Systems The Transformation Towards Sustainable Transport Systems project combines sustainability assessment, integrated modelling, econometrics, and policy analysis to find economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable pathways towards a below 2 degree target. 2018-2020
Swiss Energy perspectives 2050 - Update

Building upon the analysis performed in 2016-2017, this project provides an update of electricity generation costs and potentials for selected technologies for the Swiss electricity supply until 2050.

ELEGANCY The ELEGANCY project – a European research activity with academic and research partners from five different countries – aims to provide three crucial benefits, which are the decarbonization of heating and transport based on an existing fuel and infrastructure, a commercial model for industrial CCS and the opportunity to broaden public awareness of CCS. 2017-2020
SCCER Mobility - Phase 2 The SCCER Mobility expands the research and development capacities within the field of mobility. In Phase II (2017-2020) the Technology Assessment group will continue to provide the state-of-the-art integrated assessment of the future Swiss mobility system with consideration of a variety of sustainability criteria including as a subset those defined as the primary goals for the Swiss energy transformation. 2017-2020
SCCER-SoE - Phase 2 The SCCER-SoE aims to develop fundamental research and innovative solutions in the domains of GeoEnergies (Deep Geothermal Energy and CO2 sequestration) and HydroPower. In Phase II (2017-2020) it will continue with the implementation of the innovation roadmaps, the development of integrative solutions, testing and installation of innovative technologies, technology assessment and scenario modelling. 2017-2020
SCCER Storage - Phase 2 SCCER Storage aims to develop the science and technology of electricity & heat storage in order to guarantee the continuous (temporal and regional), reliable, and cost-efficient supply of power, heat, and fuels derived from intermittent renewable energies. In Phase II (2017-2020) it will continue to develop a better understanding of the boundary conditions under which energy storage technologies will be key components of the future Swiss energy system. 2017-2020
Electricity-based mobility This project is aiming at a better understanding of the optimal integration of the future Swiss electricity and transport sectors: which vehicle technologies and fuels (and combinations of them) will be the optimal solution for a clean mobility system, which can make use of daily and seasonal peaks in electricity generation? 2017-2019
AA-CAES The overall objectives of the joint project are twofold: To demonstrate a combined sensible/latent-heat storage at an industrially relevant scale for use in advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage (AA-CAES) and to assess the environmental and economic potential of AA-CAES as an alternative to pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) for electricity storage in Switzerland. 2014-2018
FRS The Future Resilient Systems program (FRS) develops a framework, concepts, and tools to make interconnected infrastructure systems more robust and resilient. FRS is the second research program under the Singapore-ETH Centre, established by ETH Zurich and Singapore's National Research Foundation. 2014-2018
RISK-GOV: DGE & Hydro The project is focused on hydropower risk assessment, thus completing and strengthening the activities in the SCCER-SoE T4.1 2014-2018
THRIVE This joint project aims to substitute electricity and fossil fuels used for cooling and heating of buildings in Switzerland with low-grade waste heat from industrial processes and thermal energy from cogeneration, renewables and traditional fuels. 2014-2018
ALKAMMONIA In project ALKAMMONIA a proof-of-concept system designed to provide power in remote applications will be developed and tested. 2013-2018
Ocelot The Ocelot project is a joint effort by the Paul Scherrer Institut and the ecoinvent centre to build an open source library for applying system models in life cycle assessment. 2016-2017
Swiss Energy perspectives 2050 This project is focused on the assessment of the potentials, costs and environmental burdens of electricity generation technologies for Swiss electricity supply until 2050. 2015-2017
ISCHESS The project studies the impacts of adding distributed stochastic generation to the Swiss electricity system. 2014-2017
POWER UP In project POWER-UP, a 500 kWe alkaline fuel cell (AFC) system will be demonstrated at Air Products (AIRP) industrial gas plant at Stade (in Lower Saxony, in northern Germany). 2013-2017
SCCER Mobility - Phase 1 The SCCER Mobility expands the research and development capacities within the field of mobility. 2014-2016
SCCER Storage - Phase 1 SCCER Storage aims to develop the science and technology of electricity & heat storage in order to guarantee the continuous (temporal and regional), reliable, and cost-efficient supply of power, heat, and fuels derived from intermittent renewable energies. 2014-2016
GEOTHERM-II The strategic goal of the project is the development of Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) technology that will allow the vast heat resources that reside at depths of several kilometers to be mined for electricity and heat production. 2013-2016
SCCER-SoE - Phase 1 The SCCER-SoE aims to develop fundamental research and innovative solutions in the domains of GeoEnergies (Deep Geothermal Energy and CO2 sequestration) and HydroPower. 2013-2016
OPTIWARES OPTIWARES is a joint CCES-CCEM project focusing on wood combustion. 2012-2016
LCA CH Nuclear Power Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of nuclear power in Switzerland. 2014-2015
MODCAT-CH In this project an analytical approach is developed and implemented to evaluate the frequencies and associated consequences of selected hazard scenarios for Switzerland based on historical data. 2013-2014
SoSCI SoSCI addresses the impacts of solar storms on critical infrastructures addressing the potential threats and impacts of geo-magnetically induced currents on power systems, telecommunication systems etc. as well as potential mitigation actions. 2013-2014
SPILL-RISK Oil Spill Risk Assessment for Different Regions and Facilities. 2013-2014
TA Swiss DGE The main aim of this project is to give a clarification of the future prospects (opportunities and risks) of deep geothermal energy. 2013-2014
THELMA THELMA is a project aimed at understanding the multi-criteria, sustainability implications of widespread electric vehicle use in Switzerland. 2010-2014
STOR STOR processes, analyzes and visualizes expert data gathered in the project “Risks Switzerland" 2012
CARMA CARMA project aims to explore the potential and feasibility of Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) systems deployment in Switzerland, within the framework of future energy scenarios. 2009-2012
Disposal Facilities for CO2 and Nuclear Waste Comparative assessment of nuclear and fossil electricity generation technologies addressing the disposal of CO2 (i.e. carbon capture and storage, CCS) and nuclear wastes (NW). 2008-2012
IMBALANCE In the IMBALANCE project the physical and chemical properties of emissions caused by the intended burning of biomass for cooking and heating will be comprehensively characterized in order to allow an assessment of their impact on air quality and climate. 2008-2012
SECURE The SECURE project develops appropriate tools for evaluating the vulnerability of the EU to the different energy supply risks, and for promoting the optimization of EU energy insecurity mitigation strategies, including investment, demand side management and dialogue with producing countries. 2008-2010
NEEDS The main objective of the project was to evaluate the full costs and benefits (i.e., direct and external costs) of energy policies and of future energy systems, both for individual countries and for the enlarged EU as a whole. 2004-2009
CASES This project aims to provide a complete and consistent assessment of the full cost of energy sources. 2006-2008
Swiss electricity supply options A comprehensive LCA based project to compare sustainability performances of electricity supply in Switzerland. 2005-2006
NG-Risk Assessment of natural gas accident risks. 2004-2005
Swiss Energy Perspectives 2035 Study on potentials and costs of electricity generation by means of “new” renewables and new nuclear technologies in Switzerland. 2004-2005
ILK Limited scope comparative study on the sustainability of different electricity supply technologies under German conditions. 2003-2004
Externe-Pol Project on the analysis of the external costs of energy. 2002-2004
NewExt The objective of NewExt was to improve the framework defined in the European Commission's ExternE project, by providing new methodological elements in four key areas which reflect the most important new developments in the assessment of external costs. 2001-2003
CETP The Objective of the China Energy Technology Program (CETP) was to develop a globally applicable methodology for analyzing the "true" cradle-to-grave impact of electric power generation. 1999-2003