Roadmap on Magnetoelectric Materials and Devices

The possibility of tuning the magnetic properties of materials with voltage (converse magnetoelectricity) or generating electric voltage with magnetic fields (direct magnetoelectricity) has opened new avenues in a large variety of technological fields, ranging from information technologies to healthcare devices and including a great number of multifunctional integrated systems, such as mechanical antennas, magnetometers, and radio frequency (RF) tunable inductors, which have been realized due to the strong strain-mediated magnetoelectric (ME) coupling found in ME composites. The development of single-phase multiferroic materials (which exhibit simultaneous ferroelectric and ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic orders), multiferroic heterostructures, as well as progress in other ME mechanisms, such as electrostatic surface charging or magneto-ionics (voltage-driven ion migration), have a large potential to boost energy efficiency in spintronics and magnetic actuators. This article focuses on existing ME materials and devices and reviews the state of the art in their performance.