Dimitrios Kazazis.jpg

Dr. Dimitrios Kazazis

Project Coordinator/Research Scientist

Paul Scherrer Institut
Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology
5232 Villigen PSI

Telephone: +41 56 310 5578
E-mail: dimitrios.kazazis@psi.ch

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Current Research

  • Advanced nanofabrication techniques
  • EUV interference lithography and electron beam lithography
  • NFFA-Europe project coordination


  • Nanofabrication, nanocharacterization, nanotechnology
  • Semiconductor physics, solid state electronics
  • Graphene, GeOI, field effect transistors (FETs) and tunneling FETs
  • Quantum Hall effect, magnetotransport


I was born and grew up in the island of Lesbos, in Greece. I studied Electrical and Computer Engineering at the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), from which I graduated in 2001 (5-year program.) During my diploma thesis, I was a member of the Microelectgronic Circuit Design Group and worked on the characterization and modeling of the MOS transistor especially using the EKV MOSFET model. Then, after serving in the Hellenic Army (mandatory service) as a Sergeant in the mortar platoon, I moved to Providence, RI in the U.S.A., and joined the School of Engineering at Brown University, where I received a Sc.M. (2005) and a Ph.D. (2009) degree from. During my doctorate studies, I worked in Prof. A. Zaslavsky's group. My work was mainly on the fabrication and characterization of ultrathin germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) field-effect transistors (FETs) and tunneling FETs (TFETs). I also worked on the subthreshold MOSFET characterization and modeling for low-noise and low-power applications. In addition, I worked on nanowire devices, (Si, Ge and SiGe). During my doctorate studies, I had the chance to work also with III-V materials, particularly on resonant tunneling diodes and on photocatalysis on ultra-thin oxides. The title of my Ph.D. thesis is: "Ultrathin Ge/high-κ dielectric structures for end-of-roadmap devices and other applications." In the summers of 2006 and 2007 I joined IBM Research in Yorktown Heights, NY as a summer intern In 2006 I worked on the growth of ultrathin single-crystal Ge on monocrystalline La-Y oxides on Si by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and on transistor fabrication. In 2007 I focused on setting up an in-vacuo photocatalysis experiment on thin high-k oxides.

Between 2009 and 2014 I was a postdoc and a researcher at the Laboratory for Photonics and Nanostructures at the National Center for Scientific Research (LPN-CNRS)in France, developing semiconductor nanostructures for electrical transport, thermodynamic measurements, and nanoelectromechanical and metrology applications (III-V and graphene). More specifically, I fabricated state-of-the art electrical resistance standards based on the quantum Hall effect (QHE) in graphene, which surpassed GaAs based standards and which can work at relaxed laboratory conditions, suitable for industrial applications. In this context, I nanofabricated and characterised various graphene devices either grown epitaxially on SiC or by CVD methods. Moreover, I developed a process for fabricating suspended two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) with almost unaffected density and mobility. The suspended 2DEGs have applications ranging from 2DEG specific heat measurements to nanomechanical applications. Beyond the aforementioned projects, during my years at LPN I worked on various other projects collaborating with several institutes in France and abroad.

Subsequently, I worked for a year in a joint position between LPN and the Paris Observatory (member of the Laboratory for Studies of Radiation and Matter in Astrophysics and Atmospheres - LERMA) developing THz circuits based on Schottky diodes for space applications.

Since 2016 I have joined the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen, Switzerland, where I am a researcher and project coordinator. I am a member of the Laboratory of Micro- and Nanotechnology and the Advanced Lithography and Metrology Group with an interest in advanced nanofabrication and nanolithopgraphy techniques, including electron beam lithography (EBL), extreme UV interference lithography (EUV-IL), and achromatic Talbot lithography (ATL). I am also the PSI coordinator of the NFFA-Europe project.

During my years at Brown University I taught several classes as a teaching assistant (Introduction to Semiconductor and Semiconductor Electronics, Electricity and Magnetism, Analysis and Design of Electronic Circuits). In France, I was a part-time lecturer at Paris 7 University (Diderot), between 2013-2016, teaching undergraduate Physics.


  1. Y. Zhang, J. Haitjema, M. Baljozovic, M. Vochenhuber, D. Kazazis, T. Jung, and A. M. Brouwer
    Dual-tone Application of a Tin-Oxo Cage Photoresist Under E-beam and EUV Exposure
    J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 31, 249 (2018)

  2. R. Rajeev, S. Fernandez, I. Mochi, P. Helfenstein, D. Kazazis, and Y. Ekinci
    Phase defect inspection on EUV masks using RESCAN
    Proc. SPIE 10809, 108090Q (2018)

  3. X. Wang, L.-T. Tseng, D. Kazazis, Z. Tasdemir, M. Vockenhuber, I. Mochi, and Y. Ekinci
    Studying resist performance for contact holes printing using EUV interference lithography
    Proc. SPIE 10809, 108091Z (2018)

  4. J. Rantala, T. Gädda, M. Laukkanen, L. N. Dang, K. Karaste, D. Kazazis, and Y. Ekinci
    New resist and underlayer approaches toward EUV lithography
    Proc. SPIE 10809, 108090X (2018)

  5. I. Mochi, M. Timmermans, E. Gallagher, M. M. Juste, I. Pollentier, R. Rajeev, P. Helfenstein, S. Fernandez, D. Kazazis, and Y.Ekinci
    Experimental evaluation of the impact of EUV pellicles on reticle imaging
    Proc. SPIE 10810, 108100Y (2018)

  6. C. Popescu, A. McClelland, D. Kazazis, G. Dawson, J. Roth, Y. Ekinci, W. Theis, and A. P. G. Robinson
    Multi-trigger resist for electron beam and extreme ultraviolet lithography
    Proc. SPIE 10775, 1077502 (2018)

  7. J. Schluck, J. Feilhauer, K. Pierz, H. W. Schumacher, D. Kazazis, U. Gennser, and T. Heinzel
    Quantum signatures of competing electron trajectories in antidote superlattices
    Phys. Rev. B 98, 165415 (2018)

  8. D. Kazazis, L.-T. Tseng, and Y. Ekinci
    Improving the Resolution and Throughput of Achromatic Talbot Lithography
    J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 36, 06J501 (2018)

  9. S. Gottlieb, D. Kazazis, I. Mochi, L. Evangelio, M. Fernández-Regúlez, Y. Ekinci, and F. Perez-Murano
    Nano-confinement of block copolymers in high accuracy topographical guiding patterns: modelling the emergence of defectivity due to incommensurability
    Soft Matter 14, 6799 (2018)

  10. A. Nachawaty, M. Yang, S. Nanot, D. Kazazis, R. Yakimova, W. Escoffier, and B. Jouault
    Large nonlocality in macroscopic Hall bars made of epitaxial graphene
    Phys. Rev. B 98,045403 (2018)

  11. C. Popescu, D. Kazazis, A. McClelland, G. Dawson, J. Roth, W. Theis, Y. Ekinci, and A. P. G. Robinson
    High-resolution EUV lithography using a multi-trigger resist
    Proc. SPIE 10583, 105831L (2018)

  12. T. Manouras, D. Kazazis, E. Koufakis, Y. Ekinci, M. Vamvakaki, and P. Argitis
    Ultra-sensitive EUV resists based on acid-catalyzed polymer backbone breaking
    Proc. SPIE 10583, 105831R (2018)

  13. I. Mochi, P. Helfenstein, R. Rajendran, S. Fernandez, D. Kazazis, and Y. Ekinci
    Through-pellicle inspection of EUV masks
    Proc. SPIE 10583, 105831I (2018)

  14. S. Fernandez, I. Mochi, P. Helfenstein, R. Rajendran, D. Kazazis, and Y. Ekinci
    A comparative study of EUV absorber materials using actinic lensless imaging of EUV photomasks
    Proc. SPIE 10583, 105831H (2018)

  15. P. Helfenstein, I. Mochi, R. Rajendran, S. Fernandez, D. Kazazis, and Y. Ekinci
    High-throughput defect inspection for arbitrarily shaped EUV absorber patterns
    Proc. SPIE 10585, 1058509(2018)

  16. S. Castellanos, L. Wu, M. Baljozovic, G. Portale, D. Kazazis, M. Vockenhuber, Y. Ekinci, and T. Jung
    Ti, Zr, and Hf-based molecular hybrid materials as EUV photoresists
    Proc. SPIE 10583, 105830A (2018)

  17. J. Schluck, M. Hund, T. Heckenthaler, T. Heinzel, N. H. Siboni, J. Horback, K. Pierz, H. W. Schumacher, D. Kazazis, U. Gennser, and D. Mailly
    Linear negative magnetoresistance in two-dimensional Lorentz gases
    Phys. Rev. B 97, 115301 (2018)

  18. N. H. Siboni, J. Schluck, K. Pierz, H. W. Schumacher, D. Kazazis, J. Horbach, T. Heinzel
    Nonmonotonic classical magnetoconductivity of a two-dimensional electron gas in a disordered array of obstacles
    Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 056601 (2018)

  19. R. Fallica, D. Kazazis, I. Mocchi, H. Schift, Y. Ekinci, R. Kirchner, and A. Voigt
    Lithographic performance of ZEP520A and mr-PosEBR resists exposed by electron beam and extreme ultraviolet lithography
    J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 35, 061603 (2017)

  20. A. Nachawaty, M. Yang, W. Desrat, S. Nanot, B. Jabakhanji, D. Kazazis, R. Yakimova, A. Cresti, W. Escoffier, and B. Jouault
    Magnetic field driven ambipolar quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene close to the charge neutrality point
    Phys. Rev. B 96,075442 (2017)

  21. I. Mochi, P. Helfenstein, R. Rajeev, S. Fernandez, D. Kazazis, S. Yoshitake, and Y. Ekinci
    Actinic inspection of EUV reticles with arbitrary pattern design
    Proc. SPIE 10450, 1045007 (2017)

  22. C. Popescu, A. McClelland, G. Dawson, J. Roth, D. Kazazis, Ya. Ekinci, W. Theis, and A. P. G. Robinson
    Multi-trigger resist for electron beam lithography
    Proc. SPIE 10446, 1044608 (2017)

  23. J. Haitjema, Y. Zhang, M. Vockenhuber, D. Kazazis, Y. Ekinci, A. M. Brouwer
    Extreme ultraviolet patterning of tin-oxo cages
    J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 16, 033510 (2017)

  24. I. Mochi, P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajeev, D. Kazazis, S. Yoshitake, and Y. Ekinci
    RESCAN: An actinic lensless microscope for defect inspection of EUV reticles
    J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 16, 041003 (2017)

  25. J. Haitjema, Y. Zhang, M. Vockenhuber, D. Kazazis, Y. Ekinci, A. M. Brouwer
    Extreme ultraviolet patterning of tin-oxo cages
    Proc. SPIE 10143, 1014325 (2017)

  26. K. Papatryfonos, D. Saladukha, K. Merghem, S. Joshi, F. Lelarge, S. Bouchoule, D. Kazazis, S. Guilet, L. Le Gratiet, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, A. Martinez, and A. Ramdane
    Laterally coupled distributed feedback lasers emitting at 2 μm with quantum dash active region and high-duty-cycle etched semiconductor gratings
    J. Appl. Phys. 121, 053101 (2017)

  27. M. Yang, O. Couturaud, W. Desrat, C. Consejo, D. Kazazis, R. Yakimova, M. Syväjärvi, M. Goiran, J. Béard, P. Frings, M. Pierre, A. Cresti, W. Escoffier, and B. Jouault
    Puddle-induced resistance oscillations in the breakdown of the graphene quantum Hall effect
    Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 237702 (2016)

  28. J. Brun-Picard, R. Ribeiro-Palau, F. Lafont, D. Kazazis, A. Michon, F. Cheynis, O. Couturaud, C. Consejo, B. Jouault, W. Poirier, and F. Schopfer
    Convenient graphene-based quantum Hall resistance standards
    2016 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016), pp. 1-2 (2016)

  29. B. A. Piot, W. Desrat, D. K. Maude, D. Kazazis, A. Cavanna, and U. Gennser
    Disorder-induced stabilization of the quantum Hall ferromagnet
    Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 106801 (2016)

  30. R. Ribeiro-Palau, F. Lafont, J. Brun-Picard, D. Kazazis, A. Michon, F. Cheynis, O. Couturaud, C. Consejo, B. Jouault, W. Poirier, and F. Schopfer
    Quantum Hall resistance standard in graphene devices under relaxed experimental conditions
    Nature Nanotechnol. 10, 965–971 (2015)

  31. J. Schluck, S. Fasbender, T. Heinzel, K. Pierz, H. Schumacher, D. Kazazis and U. Gennser
    Snake orbit commensurability resonances in magneto-electric lateral superlattices
    Phys. Rev.B 91, 195303 (2015)

  32. F. Lafont, R. Ribeiro-Palau, D. Kazazis, A. Michon, O. Couturaud, C. Consejo, T. Chassagne, M. Zielinski, M. Portail, B. Jouault, F. Schopfer, and W. Poirier
    Quantum Hall resistance standard based on graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition on silicon carbide
    Nature Commun. 6, 6806 (2015)

  33. B. Jabakhanji, D. Kazazis, W. Desrat, A. Michon, M. Portail, and B. Jouault
    Magnetoresistance of disordered graphene: from low to high temperatures
    Phys. Rev. B 90, 035423 (2014)

  34. B. Jabakhanji, A. Michon, C. Consejo, W. Desrat, M. Portail, A. Tiberj, M. Paillet, A. Zahab, F. Cheynis, F. Lafont, F. Schopfer, W. Poirier, F. Bertran, P. Le Fèvre, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, D. Kazazis, W. Escoffier, B. C. Camargo, Y. Kopelevich, J. Camassel, and B. Jouault
    Tuning the transport properties of graphene films grown by CVD on SiC(0001): Effect of in situ hydrogenation and annealing
    Phys. Rev. B 89, 085422 (2014)

  35. E. Pallecchi, M. Ridene, D. Kazazis, F. Schopfer, W. Poirier, M. O. Goerbig, D, Mailly, and A. Ouerghi
    Insulating to relativistic quantum Hall transition in disordered graphene
    Sci. Rep. 3, 1791 (2013)

  36. D. Kazazis, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, O. Bourgeois, T. Antoni, and U. Gennser
    Suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases
    Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors (ICPS 2012), AIP Conf. Proc. 1566, 249 (2013)

  37. E. Pallecchi, M. Ridene, D. Kazazis, C. Mathieu, F. Schopfer, W. Poirier, D, Mailly, and A. Ouerghi
    Observation of the quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001) with oxygen adsorption
    Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 253109 (2012)

  38. D. Kazazis, B. Schuler, M. Granada, U. Gennser, G. Faini, M. Cerchez, and T. Heinzel
    Sensing domain wall pinning in the longitudinal magnetoresistance of a two-dimensional electron gas
    Superlattice Mistrost. 52, 11 (2012)

  39. W. Van Den Daele, S. Cristoloveanu, E. Augendre, C. Le Royer, J.-F. Damlencourt, D. Kazazis, and A. Zaslavsky
    GeOI as a Platform for Ultimate Devices
    in Future Trends in Microelectronics: From Nanophotonics to Sensors and Energy, edited by S. Luryi, J. Xu, and A. Zaslavsky, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey (2010)

  40. F. C. Sabou, D. Kazazis, R. I. Bahar, J. Mundy, W. Patterson, and A. Zaslavsky
    Markov Chain Analysis of Thermally-Induced Soft Errors in Nanoscale CMOS Circuits
    IEEE Trans. Dev. Mater. 9, 494 (2009)

  41. D. Kazazis, S. Guha, N. A. Bojarczuk, A. Zaslavsky, and H.-C. Kim
    Substrate Fermi Level Effects in Photocatalysis on Oxides: Properties of Ultrathin TiO2/Si Films
    Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 064103 (2009)

  42. D. Kazazis, P. Jannaty, A. Zaslavsky, C. Le Royer, C. Tabone, L. Clevalier, and S. Cristoloveanu
    Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor with Epitaxial Junction in Thin Germanium-on-Insulator
    Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 263508 (2009)

  43. D. Kazazis
    Ultrathin Ge/High-κ Dielectric Structures for End-of-Roadmap Devices and Other Applications
    Ph.D. Thesis, Brown University, Providence, RI, May 2009

  44. H. Li, J. Mundy, W. Patterson, D. Kazazis, A. Zaslavsky and R. I. Bahar
    Thermally Induced Soft Errors in Nanoscale CMOS circuits
    IEEE International Symposium on Nanoscale Architectures, (NANOSARCH 2007), pp. 62-69 (2007)

  45. D. Kazazis, A. Zaslavsky, E. Tutuc, N. A. Bojarczuk, and S. Guha
    Negative Differential Resistance in Ultra-Thin Ge-On-Insulator FETs
    Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22, S1 (2007)

  46. H. Li, J. Mundy, W. Patterson, D. Kazazis, A. Zaslavsky and R. I. Bahar
    A Model for Soft Errors in the Subthreshold CMOS Inverter
    The Second Workshop on System Effects of Logic Soft Errors (SELSE 2)(2006)

  47. E. J. Preisler, S. Guha, B. R. Perkins, D. Kazazis, A. Zaslavsky
    Ultrathin Epitaxial Germanium on Crystalline Oxide Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Field-Effect Transistors
    Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 223504 (2005)

  48. D. M. Binkley, M. Bucher, and D. Kazazis
    Modern analog CMOS design from weak through strong inversion
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD 2003), pp. I-8-I-13, (2003)

  49. M. Bucher, D. Kazazis, F. Krummenacher, D. Binkley, D. Foty, Y. Papananos
    Analysis of Transconductances at All Levels of Inversion in Deep Submicron CMOS
    9th IEEE Int. Conf. on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS 2002), pp. 1183-1186, (2002)

  50. M. Bucher, J.M. Sallese, F. Krummenacher, D. Kazazis, C. Lallement, W. Grabinski, C. Enz
    EKV 3.0: An Analog Design-Oriented MOS Transistor Model
    9th Int. Conf. on Mixed Design (MIXDES 2002), pp. 51-54 (2002)

  51. D. Kazazis
    Characterization and Modeling of the MOS Transistor over the Continuum of Inversion Level and Channel Length
    Diploma Thesis, National Technical University, Athens, Greece, July 2001