Negative flat band magnetism in a spin–orbit-coupled correlated kagome magnet

Electronic systems with flat bands are predicted to be a fertile ground for hosting emergent phenomena including unconven- tional magnetism and superconductivity, but materials that manifest this feature are rare. Here, we use scanning tunnelling microscopy to elucidate the atomically resolved electronic states and their magnetic response in the kagome magnet Co3Sn2S2. We observe a pronounced peak at the Fermi level, which we identify as arising from the kinetically frustrated kagome flat band. On increasing the magnetic field up to ±8 T, this state exhibits an anomalous magnetization-polarized many-body Zeeman shift, dominated by an orbital moment that is opposite to the field direction. Such negative magnetism is induced by spin–orbit-coupling quantum phase effects tied to non-trivial flat band systems. We image the flat band peak, resolve the associated negative magnetism and provide its connection to the Berry curvature field, show- ing that Co3Sn2S2 is a rare example of a kagome magnet where the low-energy physics can be dominated by the spin–orbit- coupled flat band.