Dr. Kaspar Rudolf Dällenbach

Group Head Aerosol and Health
Paul Scherrer Institut PSI
Forschungsstrasse 111
5232 Villigen PSI

My overarching goals are to 1) attribute particulate matters’ (PM) health impacts (short term - acute and on long term - chronic) to the relevant PM sources, to 2) determine the importance of atmospheric processing of the emissions for particles’ health effects, and 3) to improve the current knowledge on PM’s molecular chemical composition and sources.

In order to achieve these goals, I develop analytical laboratory approaches for estimating the population exposure to single PM sources on a global scale, 2) advance data mining tools capable of using the newly available molecular information on PM’s composition and 3) use these tools on offline determination of PM’s composition in various locations around the globe.

The goals and the process to achieve them, collectively, will improve our views on the specific components of PM responsible for health deterioration and thus provide basis for future health-targeted air pollution mitigating strategies.

2023 - present

Group Head Aerosol and Health / Tenure track scientist

2022 - 2023

Group Head Aerosol and Health a.i. / Tenure track scientist

2020 - present

Tenure track scientist

Gasphase and Aerosol Chemistry group, Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland

2018 - 2020

Postdoctoral researcher

Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR), University of Helsinki, Finland.


Scientific researcher,

Gasphase and Aerosol Chemistry group, Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland.

2013 - 2017

PhD in Atmospheric Chemistry,

Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland

2010 - 2013

Master in Environmental Sciences (major in Atmosphere and Climate)

Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ), Switzerland


6 month stay at Uppsala University, Sweden

2007 - 2010

Bachelor in Environmental Sciences

Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ), Switzerland


  • Bhattu D, Tripathi SN, Bhowmik HS, Moschos V, Lee CP, Rauber M, et al.
    Local incomplete combustion emissions define the PM2.5 oxidative potential in Northern India
    Nature Communications. 2024; 15(1): 3517 (13 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-024-47785-5
  • Cheung RKY, Qi L, Manousakas MI, Puthussery JV, Zheng Y, Koenig TK, et al.
    Major source categories of PM2.5 oxidative potential in wintertime Beijing and surroundings based on online dithiothreitol-based field measurements
    Science of the Total Environment. 2024; 928: 172345 (14 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.172345
  • Li X, Li H, Yao L, Stolzenburg D, Sarnela N, Vettikkat L, et al.
    Over 20 years of observations in the boreal forest reveal a decreasing trend of atmospheric new particle formation
    Boreal Environment Research. 2024; 29(1-6): 35-52.
  • Rusanen A, Björklund A, Manousakas MI, Jiang J, Kulmala MT, Puolamäki K, et al.
    A novel probabilistic source apportionment approach: Bayesian auto-correlated matrix factorization
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. 2024; 17(4): 1251-1277. https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-17-1251-2024
  • Skiba A, Styszko K, Tobler A, Casotto R, Gorczyca Z, Furman P, et al.
    Source attribution of carbonaceous fraction of particulate matter in the urban atmosphere based on chemical and carbon isotope composition
    Scientific Reports. 2024; 14(1): 7234 (14 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-024-57829-x
  • Cai J, Daellenbach KR, Wu C, Zheng Y, Zheng F, Du W, et al.
    Characterization of offline analysis of particulate matter with FIGAERO-CIMS
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. 2023; 16(5): 1147-1165. https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-16-1147-2023
  • Casotto R, Skiba A, Rauber M, Strähl J, Tobler A, Bhattu D, et al.
    Organic aerosol sources in Krakow, Poland, before implementation of a solid fuel residential heating ban
    Science of the Total Environment. 2023; 855: 158655 (12 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.158655
  • Dada L, Stolzenburg D, Simon M, Fischer L, Heinritzi M, Wang M, et al.
    Role of sesquiterpenes in biogenic new particle formation
    Science Advances. 2023; 9(36): eadi5297 (15 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.adi5297
  • Daellenbach KR, Manousakas M, Jiang J, Cui T, Chen Y, El Haddad I, et al.
    Organic aerosol sources in the Milan metropolitan area - receptor modelling based on field observations and air quality modelling
    Atmospheric Environment. 2023; 307: 119799 (10 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2023.119799
  • Heutte B, Bergner N, Beck I, Angot H, Dada L, Quéléver LLJ, et al.
    Measurements of aerosol microphysical and chemical properties in the central Arctic atmosphere during MOSAiC
    Scientific Data. 2023; 10(1): 690 (16 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-023-02586-1
  • Mishra S, Tripathi SN, Kanawade VP, Haslett SL, Dada L, Ciarelli G, et al.
    Rapid night-time nanoparticle growth in Delhi driven by biomass-burning emissions
    Nature Geoscience. 2023; 16(3): 224-230. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-023-01138-x
  • Zhang Y, Tian J, Wang Q, Qi L, Manousakas MI, Han Y, et al.
    High-time-resolution chemical composition and source apportionment of PM2.5 in northern Chinese cities: implications for policy
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2023; 23(16): 9455-9471. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-23-9455-2023
  • in 't Veld M, Khare P, Hao Y, Reche C, Pérez N, Alastuey A, et al.
    Characterizing the sources of ambient PM10 organic aerosol in urban and rural Catalonia, Spain
    Science of the Total Environment. 2023; 902: 166440 (13 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.166440
  • Benavent N, Mahajan AS, Li Q, Cuevas CA, Schmale J, Angot H, et al.
    Substantial contribution of iodine to Arctic ozone destruction
    Nature Geoscience. 2022; 15: 770-773. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-022-01018-w
  • Bogler S, Daellenbach KR, Bell DM, Prévôt ASH, El Haddad I, Borduas-Dedekind N
    Singlet oxygen seasonality in aqueous PM10 is driven by biomass burning and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol
    Environmental Science and Technology. 2022; 56(22): 15389-15397. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.2c04554
  • Cai J, Wu C, Wang J, Du W, Zheng F, Hakala S, et al.
    Influence of organic aerosol molecular composition on particle absorptive properties in autumn Beijing
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2022; 22(2): 1251-1269. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-22-1251-2022
  • Casotto R, Cvitešić Kušan A, Bhattu D, Cui T, Manousakas MI, Frka S, et al.
    Chemical composition and sources of organic aerosol on the Adriatic coast in Croatia
    Atmospheric Environment: X. 2022; 13: 100159 (14 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeaoa.2022.100159
  • Chen G, Canonaco F, Tobler A, Aas W, Alastuey A, Allan J, et al.
    European aerosol phenomenology - 8: harmonised source apportionment of organic aerosol using 22 year-long ACSM/AMS datasets
    Environment International. 2022; 166: 107325 (18 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2022.107325
  • Chen G, Canonaco F, Slowik JG, Daellenbach KR, Tobler A, Petit J-E, et al.
    Real-time source apportionment of organic aerosols in three European cities
    Environmental Science and Technology. 2022; 56(22): 15290-15297. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.2c02509
  • Dada L, Angot H, Beck I, Baccarini A, Quéléver LLJ, Boyer M, et al.
    A central arctic extreme aerosol event triggered by a warm air-mass intrusion
    Nature Communications. 2022; 13(1): 5290 (15 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-32872-2
  • Du W, Cai J, Zheng F, Yan C, Zhou Y, Guo Y, et al.
    Influence of aerosol chemical composition on condensation sink efficiency and new particle formation in Beijing
    Environmental Science and Technology Letters. 2022; 9(5): 375-382. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.2c00159
  • Guo Y, Yan C, Liu Y, Qiao X, Zheng F, Zhang Y, et al.
    Seasonal variation in oxygenated organic molecules in urban Beijing and their contribution to secondary organic aerosol
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2022; 22(15): 10077-10097. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-22-10077-2022
  • Hakala S, Vakkari V, Bianchi F, Dada L, Deng C, Dällenbach KR, et al.
    Observed coupling between air mass history, secondary growth of nucleation mode particles and aerosol pollution levels in Beijing
    Environmental Science: Atmospheres. 2022; 2(2): 146-164. https://doi.org/10.1039/d1ea00089f
  • Karlsson L, Baccarini A, Duplessis P, Baumgardner D, Brooks IM, Chang RY-W, et al.
    Physical and chemical properties of cloud droplet residuals and aerosol particles during the Arctic Ocean 2018 expedition
    Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres. 2022; 127(11): e2021JD036383 (20 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JD036383
  • Ma J, Ungeheuer F, Zheng F, Du W, Wang Y, Cai J, et al.
    Nontarget screening exhibits a seasonal cycle of PM2.5 organic aerosol composition in Beijing
    Environmental Science and Technology. 2022; 56(11): 7017-7028. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c06905
  • Manousakas M, Furger M, Daellenbach KR, Canonaco F, Chen G, Tobler A, et al.
    Source identification of the elemental fraction of particulate matter using size segregated, highly time-resolved data and an optimized source apportionment approach
    Atmospheric Environment: X. 2022; 14: 100165 (15 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeaoa.2022.100165
  • Moschos V, Dzepina K, Bhattu D, Lamkaddam H, Casotto R, Daellenbach KR, et al.
    Equal abundance of summertime natural and wintertime anthropogenic Arctic organic aerosols
    Nature Geoscience. 2022; 15: 196-202. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-021-00891-1
  • Nie W, Yan C, Huang DD, Wang Z, Liu Y, Qiao X, et al.
    Secondary organic aerosol formed by condensing anthropogenic vapours over China’s megacities
    Nature Geoscience. 2022; 15: 255-261. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-022-00922-5
  • Qi L, Bozzetti C, Corbin JC, Daellenbach KR, El Haddad I, Zhang Q, et al.
    Source identification and characterization of organic nitrogen in atmospheric aerosols at a suburban site in China
    Science of the Total Environment. 2022; 818: 151800 (11 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151800
  • Siegel K, Neuberger A, Karlsson L, Zieger P, Mattsson F, Duplessis P, et al.
    Using novel molecular-level chemical composition observations of high arctic organic aerosol for predictions of cloud condensation nuclei
    Environmental Science and Technology. 2022; 56(19): 13888-13899. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.2c02162
  • Via M, Chen G, Canonaco F, Daellenbach KR, Chazeau B, Chebaicheb H, et al.
    Rolling vs. seasonal PMF: real-world multi-site and synthetic dataset comparison
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. 2022; 15(18): 5479-5495. https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-15-5479-2022
  • Yan C, Shen Y, Stolzenburg D, Dada L, Qi X, Hakala S, et al.
    The effect of COVID-19 restrictions on atmospheric new particle formation in Beijing
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2022; 22(18): 12207-12220. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-22-12207-2022
  • Canonaco F, Tobler A, Chen G, Sosedova Y, Slowik JG, Bozzetti C, et al.
    A new method for long-term source apportionment with time-dependent factor profiles and uncertainty assessment using SoFi Pro: application to 1 year of organic aerosol data
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. 2021; 14(2): 923-943. https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-14-923-2021
  • Chen G, Sosedova Y, Canonaco F, Fröhlich R, Tobler A, Vlachou A, et al.
    Time-dependent source apportionment of submicron organic aerosol for a rural site in an alpine valley using a rolling positive matrix factorisation (PMF) window
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2021; 21(19): 15081-15101. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-15081-2021
  • Heikkinen L, Äijälä M, Daellenbach KR, Chen G, Garmash O, Aliaga D, et al.
    Eight years of sub-micrometre organic aerosol composition data from the boreal forest characterized using a machine-learning approach
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2021; 21(13): 10081-10109. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-10081-2021
  • Huang XF, Cao LM, Tian X-D, Zhu Q, Saikawa E, Lin L-L, et al.
    Critical role of simultaneous reduction of atmospheric odd oxygen for winter haze mitigation
    Environmental Science and Technology. 2021; 55(17): 11557-11567. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c03421
  • Moschos V, Gysel-Beer M, Modini RL, Corbin JC, Massabò D, Costa C, et al.
    Source-specific light absorption by carbonaceous components in the complex aerosol matrix from yearly filter-based measurements
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2021; 21(17): 12809-12833. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-12809-2021
  • Srivastava D, Daellenbach KR, Zhang Y, Bonnaire N, Chazeau B, Perraudin E, et al.
    Comparison of five methodologies to apportion organic aerosol sources during a PM pollution event
    Science of the Total Environment. 2021; 757: 143168 (12 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143168
  • Daellenbach KR, Uzu G, Jiang J, Cassagnes LE, Leni Z, Vlachou A, et al.
    Sources of particulate-matter air pollution and its oxidative potential in Europe
    Nature. 2020; 587(7834): 414-419. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2902-8
  • Esmaeilirad S, Lai A, Abbaszade G, Schnelle-Kreis J, Zimmermann R, Uzu G, et al.
    Source apportionment of fine particulate matter in a Middle Eastern Metropolis, Tehran-Iran, using PMF with organic and inorganic markers
    Science of the Total Environment. 2020; 705: 135330 (16 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135330
  • Hu R, Xu Q, Wang S, Hua Y, Bhattarai N, Jiang J, et al.
    Chemical characteristics and sources of water-soluble organic aerosol in southwest suburb of Beijing
    Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2020; 95: 99-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.04.004
  • Leni Z, Cassagnes LE, Daellenbach KR, El Haddad I, Vlachou A, Uzu G, et al.
    Oxidative stress-induced inflammation in susceptible airways by anthropogenic aerosol
    PLoS One. 2020; 15(11): e0233425 (17 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0233425
  • Qi L, Vogel AL, Esmaeilirad S, Cao L, Zheng J, Jaffrezo J-L, et al.
    A 1-year characterization of organic aerosol composition and sources using an extractive electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF)
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2020; 20(13): 7875-7893. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-7875-2020
  • Daellenbach KR, Kourtchev I, Vogel AL, Bruns EA, Jiang J, Petäjä T, et al.
    Impact of anthropogenic and biogenic sources on the seasonal variation in the molecular composition of urban organic aerosols: a field and laboratory study using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2019; 19(9): 5973-5991. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-5973-2019
  • Stefenelli G, Pospisilova V, Lopez-Hilfiker FD, Daellenbach KR, Hüglin C, Tong Y, et al.
    Organic aerosol source apportionment in Zurich using an extractive electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF-MS) - part 1: biogenic influences and day-night chemistry in summer
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2019; 19(23): 14825-14848. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-14825-2019
  • Vlachou A, Tobler A, Lamkaddam H, Canonaco F, Daellenbach KR, Jaffrezo J-L, et al.
    Development of a versatile source apportionment analysis based on positive matrix factorization: a case study of the seasonal variation of organic aerosol sources in Estonia
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2019; 19(11): 7279-7295. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-7279-2019
  • Vogel AL, Lauer A, Fang L, Arturi K, Bachmeier F, Daellenbach KR, et al.
    A comprehensive nontarget analysis for the molecular reconstruction of organic aerosol composition from glacier ice cores
    Environmental Science and Technology. 2019; 53(21): 12565-12575. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b03091
  • Zhou J, Elser M, Huang R-J, Krapf M, Fröhlich R, Bhattu D, et al.
    Predominance of secondary organic aerosol to particle-bound reactive oxygen species activity in fine ambient aerosol
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2019; 19(23): 14703-14720. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-14703-2019
  • Daellenbach KR, El-Haddad I, Karvonen L, Vlachou A, Corbin JC, Slowik JG, et al.
    Insights into organic-Aerosol sources via a novel laser-desorption/ionization mass spectrometry technique applied to one year of PM10 samples from nine sites in central Europe
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2018; 18(3): 2155-2174. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-2155-2018
  • Moschos V, Kumar NK, Daellenbach KR, Baltensperger U, Prévôt ASH, El Haddad I
    Source apportionment of brown carbon absorption by coupling ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy with aerosol mass spectrometry
    Environmental Science and Technology Letters. 2018; 5(6): 302-308. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.8b00118
  • Vlachou A, Daellenbach KR, Bozzetti C, Chazeau B, Salazar GA, Szidat S, et al.
    Advanced source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols by coupling offline AMS and radiocarbon size-segregated measurements over a nearly 2-year period
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2018; 18(9): 6187-6206. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-6187-2018
  • Zhang Y-L, El-Haddad I, Huang R-J, Ho K-F, Cao J-J, Han Y, et al.
    Large contribution of fossil fuel derived secondary organic carbon to water soluble organic aerosols in winter haze in China
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2018; 18(6): 4005-4017. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-4005-2018
  • Bozzetti C, Sosedova Y, Xiao M, Daellenbach KR, Ulevicius V, Dudoitis V, et al.
    Argon offline-AMS source apportionment of organic aerosol over yearly cycles for an urban, rural, and marine site in northern Europe
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2017; 17(1): 117-141. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-117-2017
  • Bozzetti C, El Haddad I, Salameh D, Daellenbach KR, Fermo P, Gonzalez R, et al.
    Organic aerosol source apportionment by offline-AMS over a full year in Marseille
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2017; 17(13): 8247-8268. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-8247-2017
  • Daellenbach KR, Stefenelli G, Bozzetti C, Vlachou A, Fermo P, Gonzalez R, et al.
    Long-term chemical analysis and organic aerosol source apportionment at nine sites in central Europe: source identification and uncertainty assessment
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2017; 17(21): 13265-13282. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-13265-2017
  • Platt SM, El Haddad I, Pieber SM, Zardini AA, Suarez-Bertoa R, Clairotte M, et al.
    Gasoline cars produce more carbonaceous particulate matter than modern filter-equipped diesel cars
    Scientific Reports. 2017; 7: 4926 (9 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-03714-9
  • Wang YC, Huang R-J, Ni HY, Chen Y, Wang QY, Li GH, et al.
    Chemical composition, sources and secondary processes of aerosols in Baoji city of northwest China
    Atmospheric Environment. 2017; 158: 128-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.03.026
  • Wolf R, El-Haddad I, Slowik JG, Dällenbach K, Bruns E, Vasilescu J, et al.
    Contribution of bacteria-like particles to PM2.5 aerosol in urban and rural environments
    Atmospheric Environment. 2017; 160: 97-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.04.001
  • Bozzetti C, Daellenbach KR, Hueglin C, Fermo P, Sciare J, Kasper-Giebl A, et al.
    Size-resolved identification, characterization, and quantification of primary biological organic aerosol at a European rural site
    Environmental Science and Technology. 2016; 50(7): 3425-3434. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b05960
  • Byčenkienė S, Ulevicius V, Bozzetti C, Vlachou A, Plauškaitė K, Mordas G, et al.
    Fossil and non-fossil source contributions to atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols during extreme spring grassland fires in Eastern Europe
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2016; 16(9): 5513-5529. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-5513-2016
  • Daellenbach KR, Bozzetti C, Křepelová A, Canonaco F, Wolf R, Zotter P, et al.
    Characterization and source apportionment of organic aerosol using offline aerosol mass spectrometry
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. 2016; 9(1): 23-39. https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-9-23-2016
  • Elser M, Huang R-J, Wolf R, Slowik JG, Wang Q, Canonaco F, et al.
    New insights into PM2.5 chemical composition and sources in two major cities in China during extreme haze events using aerosol mass spectrometry
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2016; 16(5): 3207-3225. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-3207-2016
  • Klein F, Platt SM, Farren NJ, Detournay A, Bruns EA, Bozzetti C, et al.
    Characterization of gas-phase organics using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry: cooking emissions
    Environmental Science and Technology. 2016; 50(3): 1243-1250. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b04618
  • Klein F, Farren NJ, Bozzetti C, Daellenbach KR, Kilic D, Kumar NK, et al.
    Indoor terpene emissions from cooking with herbs and pepper and their secondary organic aerosol production potential
    Scientific Reports. 2016; 6: 36623 (7 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1038/srep36623
  • Krapf M, El Haddad I, Bruns EA, Molteni U, Daellenbach KR, Prévôt ASH, et al.
    Labile peroxides in secondary organic aerosol
    Chem. 2016; 1(4): 603-616. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chempr.2016.09.007
  • Pieber SM, El Haddad I, Slowik JG, Canagaratna MR, Jayne JT, Platt SM, et al.
    Inorganic salt interference on CO2+ in aerodyne AMS and ACSM organic aerosol composition studies
    Environmental Science and Technology. 2016; 50(19): 10494-10503. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b01035
  • Zhang Y-L, Huang R-J, El Haddad I, Ho K-F, Cao J-J, Han Y, et al.
    Fossil vs. non-fossil sources of fine carbonaceous aerosols in four Chinese cities during the extreme winter haze episode of 2013
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2015; 15(3): 1299-1312. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-1299-2015
  • Huang R-J, Zhang Y, Bozzetti C, Ho K-F, Cao J-J, Han Y, et al.
    High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China
    Nature. 2014; 514(7521): 218-222. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13774
  • Zotter P, Ciobanu VG, Zhang YL, El-Haddad I, Macchia M, Daellenbach KR, et al.
    Radiocarbon analysis of elemental and organic carbon in Switzerland during winter-smog episodes from 2008 to 2012-Part 1: source apportionment and spatial variability
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2014; 14(24): 13551-13570. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-13551-2014