GAW Longterm Aerosol Monitoring at the High-Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch

Duration: Continuous since 1995
Funding: GAW-CH coordinated by the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss)
Contact: Benjamin Brem ( and Martin Gysel-Beer (

Table of Contents

Inlets for continuous aerosol observations at the Jungfraujoch research station.

In 1988 the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) initiated an aerosol research programme at the high Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl). Since 1995 the Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry at PSI has been responsible for the continuous aerosol measurements performed at Jungfraujoch within the Swiss contribution to the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) program of the World Meteorological Organization. In Europe, the GAW program is tightly linked to the Aerosol, Clouds and Traces Gases Research Infrastructure (ACTRIS). This site also serves as a platform for international research projects to investigate aerosol processes and environmental impacts through e.g. their interaction with solar radiation or clouds.

The broader aim of our longterm observations and associated research projects performed at the high-altitude research station Jungfraujoch is to achieve a better understanding of the live-cycle of atmospheric aerosols and their climate and weather impacts. Given the location high up in the alps, its is possible to probe free tropospheric background aerosol and to investigate transport events of particles originating from within the polluted planetary boundary layer, where the vast majority of aerosol emissions occur. Specific topics include:

Environmental impacts of atmospheric aerosols depend on many different physical, optical and chemical properties of the particles which are highly variable in time and space. Furthermore, many additional atmospheric parameters influence aerosol processes driving these impacts. In order to understand these processes and to quantify aerosol impacts, it is therefore of crucial importance to run multi-site and multi-parameter atmospheric observation networks and to make acquired data available to the research community.

Visualizations of current concentration and properties of aerosol particles observed at the Jungfraujoch research station are presented in near real-time at:

Quality controlled aerosol data are made available through the portal of the EBAS database infrastructure, which serves as international data center hosting atmospheric composition data from the GAW ( and several other observation networks.

The following aerosol parameters are measured on a continuous basis at the Jungfraujoch:


Employed method
or instrument



Particulate mass concentration

TSP, PM10, PM1


HiVol, Gravimetry, Fidas
Betagauge (discontinued)




2006 – ongoing

Aerosol chemical composition

In different size fractions


Aerosol mass spectrometry
and Ion chromatography


PSI and Empa


1999 – ongoing

Light absorption coefficient

At multiple wavelengths
(from 370 to 950 nm)


Aethalometer and MAAP




1995 – ongoing

Light scattering coefficient

Light scattering coefficient and
backscattering coefficient
(at 3 visible wavelengths)






1995 – ongoing

Particle number concentration

With diameter >10 nm


Condensation particle counter (CPC)




1995 – ongoing

Particle size distribution

Fine and coarse modes


Mobility particle size spectrometer (MPSS)
and Aerodynamic Particle sizer (APS)




2008 – ongoing

Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN)

CCN number concentration
at various supersaturations


Cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC)




2008 – ongoing

Aerosol optical depth

At multiple wavelengths
(380, 440, 500, and 870 nm)


Precision Filter Radiometer (PFR)




1999 – ongoing


  • Evangeliou N, Platt SM, Eckhardt S, Lund Myhre C, Laj P, Alados-Arboledas L, et al.
    Changes in black carbon emissions over Europe due to COVID-19 lockdowns
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2021; 21(4): 2675-2692.
  • Bressi M, Cavalli F, Putaud JP, Fröhlich R, Petit J-E, Aas W, et al.
    A European aerosol phenomenology - 7: high-time resolution chemical characteristics of submicron particulate matter across Europe
    Atmospheric Environment: X. 2021; 10: 100108 (16 pp.).
  • Affolter S, Schibig M, Berhanu T, Bukowiecki N, Steinbacher M, Nyfeler P, et al.
    Assessing local CO2 contamination revealed by two near-by high altitude records at Jungfraujoch, Switzerland
    Environmental Research Letters. 2021; 16(4): 044037 (12 pp.).
  • Bukowiecki N, Brem BT, Wehrle G, Močnik G, Affolter S, Leuenberger M, et al.
    Elucidating local pollution and site representativeness at the Jungfraujoch, Switzerland through parallel aerosol measurements at an adjacent mountain ridge
    Environmental Research Communications. 2021; 3(2): 021001 (12 pp.).
  • Sun J, Hermann M, Yuan Y, Birmili W, Collaud Coen M, Weinhold K, et al.
    Long-term trends of black carbon and particle number concentration in the lower free troposphere in Central Europe
    Environmental Sciences Europe. 2021; 33(1): 47 (16 pp.).


  • Burgos MA, Andrews E, Titos G, Benedetti A, Bian H, Buchard V, et al.
    A global model-measurement evaluation of particle light scattering coefficients at elevated relative humidity
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2020; 20(17): 10231-10258.
  • Collaud Coen M, Andrews E, Alastuey A, Petkov Arsov T, Backman J, Brem BT, et al.
    Multidecadal trend analysis of in situ aerosol radiative properties around the world
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2020; 20(14): 8867-8908.
  • Laj P, Bigi A, Rose C, Andrews E, Lund Myhre C, Collaud Coen M, et al.
    A global analysis of climate-relevant aerosol properties retrieved from the network of Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) near-surface observatories
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. 2020; 13(8): 4353-4392.
  • Motos G, Corbin JC, Schmale J, Modini RL, Bertò M, Kupiszewski P, et al.
    Black carbon aerosols in the lower free troposphere are heavily coated in summer but largely uncoated in winter at Jungfraujoch in the Swiss Alps
    Geophysical Research Letters. 2020; 47(14): e2020GL088011 (10 pp.).
  • Osmont D, Brugger S, Gilgen A, Weber H, Sigl M, Modini RL, et al.
    Tracing devastating fires in Portugal to a snow archive in the Swiss Alps: a case study
    Cryosphere. 2020; 14(11): 3731-3745.


  • Creamean JM, Mignani C, Bukowiecki N, Conen F
    Using freezing spectra characteristics to identify ice-nucleating particle populations during the winter in the Alps
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2019; 19(12): 8123-8140.
  • Fanourgakis GS, Kanakidou M, Nenes A, Bauer SE, Bergman T, Carslaw KS, et al.
    Evaluation of global simulations of aerosol particle and cloud condensation nuclei number, with implications for cloud droplet formation
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2019; 19(13): 8591-8617.
  • Gute E, Lacher L, Kanji ZA, Kohl R, Curtius J, Weber D, et al.
    Field evaluation of a Portable Fine Particle Concentrator (PFPC) for ice nucleating particle measurements
    Aerosol Science and Technology. 2019; 53(9): 1067-1078.
  • Motos G, Schmale J, Corbin JC, Modini RL, Karlen N, Bertò M, et al.
    Cloud droplet activation properties and scavenged fraction of black carbon in liquid-phase clouds at the high-alpine research station Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.)
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2019; 19(6): 3833-3855.


  • Collaud Coen M, Andrews E, Aliaga D, Andrade M, Angelov H, Bukowiecki N, et al.
    Identification of topographic features influencing aerosol observations at high altitude stations
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2018; 18(16): 12289-12313.
  • Conen F, Bukowiecki N, Gysel M, Steinbacher M, Fischer A, Reimann S
    Low number concentration of ice nucleating particles in an aged smoke plume
    Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. 2018; 144(715): 1991-1994.
  • Lacher L, Steinbacher M, Bukowiecki N, Herrmann E, Zipori A, Kanji ZA
    Impact of air mass conditions and aerosol properties on ice nucleating particle concentrations at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch
    Atmosphere. 2018; 9(9): 363 (25 pp.).
  • Pandolfi M, Alados-Arboledas L, Alastuey A, Andrade M, Angelov C, Artiñano B, et al.
    A European aerosol phenomenology – 6: scattering properties of atmospheric aerosol particles from 28 ACTRIS sites
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2018; 18(11): 7877-7911.
  • Schmale J, Henning S, Decesari S, Henzing B, Keskinen H, Sellegri K, et al.
    Long-term cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, particle number size distribution and chemical composition measurements at regionally representative observatories
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2018; 18(4): 2853-2881.


  • Schmale J, Henning S, Henzing B, Keskinen H, Sellegri K, Ovadnevaite J, et al.
    Collocated observations of cloud condensation nuclei, particle size distributions, and chemical composition
    Scientific Data. 2017; 4: 170003 (26 pp.).


  • Bianchi F, Tröstl J, Junninen H, Frege C, Henne S, Hoyle CR, et al.
    New particle formation in the free troposphere: a question of chemistry and timing
    Science. 2016; 352(6289): 1109-1112.
  • Weingartner E, Gysel M, Coen MC, Zieger P, Herrmann E, Steinbacher M, et al.
    A review of more than 20 years of aerosol observation at the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland (3580 m asl)
    Aerosol and Air Quality Research. 2016; 16(3): 764-788.

Articles before 2012

Climatology of Aerosol Radiative Properties in the Free Troposphere.
Andrews, E., J. A. Ogren, P. Bonasoni, A. Marinoni, E. Cuevas, Rodríguez, J. Y. Sun, D. A. Jaffe, E. V. Fischer, U. Baltensperger, E. Weingartner, M. Collaud Coen, S. Sharma, A. M. Macdonald, W. R. Leaitch, N.-H. Lin, P. Laj, T. Arsov, I. Kalapov, A. Jefferson, and P. Sheridan, 2011
Atmos. Res., 102, 365-393, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2011.08.017.

Number size distributions and seasonality of submicron particles in Europe 2008–2009.
Asmi, A., A. Wiedensohler, P. Laj, A.-M. Fjaeraa, K. Sellegri, W. Birmili, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, V. Zdimal, N. Zikova, J.-P. Putaud, A. Marinoni, P. Tunved, H.-C. Hansson, M. Fiebig, N. Kivekäs, H. Lihavainen, E. Asmi, V. Ulevicius, P. P. Aalto, E. Swietlicki, A. Kristensson, N. Mihalopoulos, N. Kalivitis, I. Kalapov, G. Kiss, G. d. Leeuw, B. Henzing, R. M. Harrison, D. Beddows, C. O'Dowd, S. G. Jennings, H. Flentje, K. Weinhold, F. Meinhardt, L. Ries, and M. Kulmala, 2011
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 5505-5538.

New particle formation and ultrafine charged aerosol climatology at a high altitude site in the Alps (Jungfraujoch, 3580 m a.s.l., Switzerland).
Boulon, J., K. Sellegri, H. Venzac, D. Picard, E. Weingartner, G. Wehrle, M. Collaud Coen, R. Bütikofer, E. Flückiger, U. Baltensperger, and P. Laj, 2010
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 9333-9349, doi: 10.5194/acp-10-9333-2010

Ground-based and airborne in-situ measurements of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic aerosol plume in Switzerland in spring 2010.
Bukowiecki, N., P. Zieger, E. Weingartner, Z. Jurányi, M. Gysel, B. Neininger, B. Schneider, C. Hueglin, A. Ulrich, A. Wichser, S. Henne, D. Brunner, R. Kaegi, M. Schwikowski, L. Tobler, F. G. Wienhold, I. Engel, B. Buchmann, T. Peter, and U. Baltensperger, 2011
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 10011-10030.

The influence of small aerosol particles on the properties of water and ice clouds.
Choularton, T. W., K. N. Bower, E. Weingartner, I. Crawford, H. Coe, M. W. Gallagher, M. Flynn, J. Crosier, P. Connolly, A. Targino, M. R. Alfarra, U. Baltensperger, S. Sjogren, B. Verheggen, J. Cozic, and M. Gysel, 2008
Faraday Discussions, 137, 205-222.

Long-term trend analysis of aerosol variables at the high alpine site Jungfraujoch.
Collaud Coen, M., E. Weingartner, S. Nyeki, J. Cozic, S. Henning, B. Verheggen, R. Gehrig, and U. Baltensperger, 2007
J. Geophys. Res., 112, D13213, doi: 10.1029/2006JD007995.

Saharan dust events at the Jungfraujoch: detection by wavelength dependence of the single scattering albedo and first climatology analysis.
Collaud Coen, M., E. Weingartner, D. Schaub, C. Hueglin, C. Corrigan, S. Henning, M. Schwikowski, and U. Baltensperger, 2004
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 2465-2480.

Minimizing light absorption measurement artifacts of the Aethalometer: evaluation of five correction algorithms.
Collaud Coen, M. C., E. Weingartner, A. Apituley, D. Ceburnis, R. Fierz-Schmidhauser, H. Flentje, J. S. Henzing, S. G. Jennings, M. Moerman, A. Petzold, O. Schmid, and U. Baltensperger, 2010
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 3, 457-474, doi: 10.5194/amt-3-457-2010.

Black carbon enrichment in atmospheric ice particle residuals observed in lower tropospheric mixed phase clouds.
Cozic, J., S. Mertes, B. Verheggen, D. J. Cziczo, S. J. Gallavardin, S. Walter, U. Baltensperger, and E. Weingartner, 2008a
J. Geophys. Res., 113, doi:10.1029/2007JD009266.

Scavenging of black carbon in mixed phase clouds at the high alpine site Jungfraujoch.
Cozic, J., B. Verheggen, S. Mertes, P. Connolly, K. Bower, A. Petzold, U. Baltensperger, and E. Weingartner, 2007
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 1797-1807.

Chemical composition of free tropospheric aerosol for PM1 and coarse mode at the high alpine site Jungfraujoch.
Cozic, J., B. Verheggen, E. Weingartner, J. Crosier, K. N. Bower, M. Flynn, H. Coe, S. Henning, M. Steinbacher, S. Henne, M. Collaud Coen, A. Petzold, and U. Baltensperger, 2008b
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 407-423.

Relating hygroscopicity and composition of organic aerosol particulate matter.
Duplissy, J., P. F. DeCarlo, J. Dommen, M. R. Alfarra, A. Metzger, I. Barmpadimos, A. S. H. Prevot, E. Weingartner, T. Tritscher, M. Gysel, A. C. Aiken, J. L. Jimenez, M. R. Canagaratna, D. R. Worsnop, D. R. Collins, J. Tomlinson, and U. Baltensperger, 2011
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 1155-1165.

Chemical composition and mixing-state of ice residuals sampled within mixed phase clouds.
Ebert, M., A. Worringen, N. Benker, S. Mertes, E. Weingartner, and S. Weinbruch, 2011
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 2805-2816.

Sampling and chemical analysis of ice crystals as a function of size.
Ehrman, S. H., M. Schwikowski, U. Baltensperger, and H. W. Gaggeler, 2001
Atmos. Env., 35, 5371-5376.

Measured and predicted aerosol light scattering enhancement factors at the high alpine site Jungfraujoch.
Fierz-Schmidhauser, R., P. Zieger, M. Gysel, L. Kammermann, P. F. DeCarlo, U. Baltensperger, and E. Weingartner, 2010
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 2319-2333.

Size-dependent aerosol activation at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl).
Henning, S., E. Weingartner, S. Schmidt, M. Wendisch, H. W. Gaggeler, and U. Baltensperger, 2002
Tellus, 54, 82-95.

Seasonal variation of water-soluble ions of the aerosol at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl).
Henning, S., E. Weingartner, M. Schwikowski, H. W. Gaggeler, R. Gehrig, K. P. Hinz, A. Trimborn, B. Spengler, and U. Baltensperger, 2003
J. Geophys. Res, 108, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002439.

In situ determination of atmospheric aerosol composition as a function of hygroscopic growth.
Herich, H., L. Kammermann, M. Gysel, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, U. Lohmann, and D. J. Cziczo, 2008
J. Geophys. Res., 113, D16213, doi:10.1029/2008JD009954.

Aerosol single particle composition at the Jungfraujoch.
Hinz, K. P., A. Trimborn, E. Weingartner, S. Henning, U. Baltensperger, and B. Spengler, 2005
J. Aerosol Sci., 36, 123-145.

Aerosol processing in mixed-phase clouds in ECHAM5-HAM: Model description and comparison to observations.
Hoose, C., U. Lohmann, P. Stier, B. Verheggen, and E. Weingartner, 2008
J. Geophys. Res., 113, doi:10.1029/2007jd009251.

Measured and modelled cloud condensation nuclei concentration at the high alpine site Jungfraujoch.
Jurányi, Z., M. Gysel, E. Weingartner, P. F. DeCarlo, L. Kammermann, and U. Baltensperger, 2010
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7891-7906, doi: 10.5194/acp-10-7891-2010

13-month climatology of the aerosol hygroscopicity at the free tropospheric site Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.).
Kammermann, L., M. Gysel, E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger, 2010
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10717-10732, doi:10.5194/acp-10-10717-2010.

Study on the chemical character of water soluble organic compounds in fine atmospheric aerosol at the Jungfraujoch.
Krivacsy, Z., A. Gelencser, G. Kiss, E. Meszaros, A. Molnar, A. Hoffer, T. Meszaros, Z. Sarvari, D. Temesi, B. Varga, U. Baltensperger, S. Nyeki, and E. Weingartner, 2001a
J. Atmos. Chem., 39, 235-259.

Role of organic and blackcarbon in the chemical composition of atmospheric aerosol at European background sites.
Krivacsy, Z., A. Hoffer, Z. Sarvari, D. Temesi, U. Baltensperger, S. Nyeki, E. Weingartner, S. Kleefeld, and S. G. Jennings, 2001b
Atmos. Env., 35, 6231–6244.

Single particle characterization of black carbon aerosols at a tropospheric alpine site in Switzerland.
Liu, D., M. Flynn, M. Gysel, A. Targino, I. Crawford, K. Bower, T. Choularton, Z. Jurányi, M. Steinbacher, C. Hüglin, J. Curtius, M. Kampus, A. Petzold, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, and H. Coe, 2010
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7389-7407, doi: 10.5194/acp-10-7389-2010

EUCAARI ion spectrometer measurements at 12 European sites – analysis of new-particle formation events.
Manninen, H. E., T. Nieminen, E. Asmi, S. Gagné, S. Häkkinen, K. Lehtipalo, P. Aalto, M. Vana, A. Mirme, S. Mirme, U. Hõrrak, C. Plass-Dülmer, G. Stange, G. Kiss, A. Hoffer, N. Töro, M. Moerman, B. Henzing, G. d. Leeuw, M. Brinkenberg, G. N. Kouvarakis, A. Bougiatioti, N. Mihalopoulos, C. O'Dowd, D. Ceburnis, A. Arneth, B. Svenningsson, E. Swietlicki, L. Tarozzi, S. Decesari, M. C. Facchini, W. Birmili, A. Sonntag, A. Wiedensohler, J. Boulon, K. Sellegri, M. G. P. Laj, N. Bukowiecki, E. Weingartner, G. Wehrle, A. Laaksonen, A. Hamed, J. Joutsensaari, T. Petäjä, V.-M. Kerminen, and M. Kulmala, 2010
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7907-7927, doi: 10.5194/acp-10-7907-2010

Counterflow virtual impactor based collection of small ice particles in mixed-phase clouds for the physico-chemical characterisation of tropospheric ice nuclei: sampler description and first case study.
Mertes, S., B. Verheggen, S. Walter, M. Ebert, P. Connolly, E. Weingartner, J. Schneider, K. N. Bower, M. Inerle-Hof, J. Cozic, U. Baltensperger, and J. Heinzenberg, 2007
Aerosol Sci. Technol., 41, 848-864.

Simultaneous dry and ambient measurements of aerosol size distributions at the Jungfraujoch.
Nessler, R., N. Bukowiecki, S. Henning, E. Weingartner, B. Calpini, and U. Baltensperger, 2003
Tellus, 55, 808-819.

Adaptation of dry nephelometer measurements to ambient conditions at the Jungfraujoch.
Nessler, R., E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger, 2005a
Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 2219-2228.

Effect of humidity on aerosol light absorption and its implications for extinction and the single scattering albedo illustrated for a site in the lower free troposphere.
Nessler, R., E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger, 2005b
J. Aerosol Sci., 36, 958-972.

Primary versus secondary contributions to particle number concentrations in the European boundary layer.
Reddington, C. L., K. S. Carslaw, D. V. Spracklen, M. G. Frontoso, L. Collins, J. Merikanto, A. Minikin, T. Hamburger, H. Coe, M. Kulmala, P. Aalto, H. Flentje, C. Plass-Dülmer, W. Birmili, A. Wiedensohler, B. Wehner, T. Tuch, A. Sonntag, C. D. O'Dowd, S. G. Jennings, R. Dupuy, U. Baltensperger, E. Weingartner, H.-C. Hansson, P. Tunved, P. Laj, K. Sellegri, J. Boulon, J.-P. Putaud, C. Gruening, E. Swietlicki, P. Roldin, J. S. Henzing, M. Moerman, N. Mihalopoulos, G. Kouvarakis, V. Ždímal, N. Zíková, A. Marinoni, P. Bonasoni, and R. Duchi, 2011
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 11, 18249-18318.

Hygroscopicity of the submicrometer aerosol at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, 3580 m a.s.l., Switzerland.
Sjogren, S., M. Gysel, E. Weingartner, M. R. Alfarra, J. Duplissy, J. Cozic, J. Crosier, H. Coe, and U. Baltensperger, 2008
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 5715-5729.

Explaining global surface aerosol number concentrations in terms of primary emissions and particle formation.
Spracklen, D. V., K. S. Carslaw, J. Merikanto, G. W. Mann, C. L. Reddington, S. Pickering, J. A. Ogren, E. Andrews, U. Baltensperger, E. Weingartner, M. Boy, M. Kulmala, L. Laakso, H. Lihavainen, N. Kivekas, M. Komppula, N. Mihalopoulos, G. Kouvarakis, S. G. Jennings, C. O'Dowd, W. Birmili, A. Wiedensohler, R. Weller, J. Gras, P. Laj, K. Sellegri, B. Bonn, R. Krejci, A. Laaksonen, A. Hamed, A. Minikin, R. M. Harrison, R. Talbot, and J. Sun, 2010
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4775-4793, doi: 10.5194/acp-10-4775-2010

Characterization of size-fractionated aerosol from the Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl) using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF).
Streit, N., E. Weingartner, C. Zellweger, M. Schwikowski, H. W. Gaggeler, and U. Baltensperger, 2000
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 76, 1-16.

Influence of particle chemical composition on the phase of cold clouds at a high-alpine site in Switzerland.
Targino, A. C., H. Coe, J. Cozic, J. Crosier, I. Crawford, K. Bower, M. Flynn, M. Gallagher, J. Allan, B. Verheggen, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, and T. Choularton, 2009
J. Geophys. Res., 114, 20.

Aerosol partitioning between the interstitial and the condensed phase in mixed-phase clouds.
Verheggen, B., J. Cozic, E. Weingartner, K. Bower, S. Mertes, P. Connolly, M. Gallagher, M. Flynn, T. Choularton, and U. Baltensperger, 2007
J. Geophys. Res, 112, doi:10.1029/2007JD008714R.

Hygroscopicity of aerosol particles at low temperatures. 1. New low-temperature H-TDMA instrument: Setup and first applications.
Weingartner, E., M. Gysel, and U. Baltensperger, 2002
Environ. Sci. Technol., 36, 55-62.

Seasonal and diurnal variation of aerosol size distributions (10 < D < 750 nm) at a high-alpine site (Jungfraujoch 3580 m asl)
Weingartner, E., S. Nyeki, and U. Baltensperger, 1999
J. Geophys. Res., 104, 26809-26820

Summertime NOy speciation at the Jungfraujoch, 3580 m above sea level, Switzerland.
Zellweger, C., M. Ammann, B. Buchmann, P. Hofer, M. Lugauer, R. Ruttimann, N. Streit, E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger, 2000
J. Geophys. Res., 105, 6655-6667.