In conjunction with the increasing availability of cost-efficient laser units during the recent years, laser-based micromachining techniques have been developed as an indispensable industrial instrument of ‘‘tool-free’’ high-precision manufacturing techniques for the production of miniaturized devices made of nearly every type of materials. Laser cutting and drilling, as well as surface etching, have grown meanwhile to mature standard methods in laser micromachining applications where a well-defined laser beam is used to remove material by laser ablation. As an accurately triggerable nonmechanical tool, the ablating laser beam directly allows a subtractive direct-write engraving of precise microscopic structure patterns on surfaces, such as microchannels, grooves, and well arrays, as well as for security features. Therefore, laser direct-write (LDW) techniques imply originally a controlled material ablation to create a patterned surface with spatially resolved three-dimensional structures, and gained importance as an alternative to complementary photolithographic wet-etch processes. However, with more extended setups, LDW techniques can also be utilized to deposit laterally resolved micropatterns on surfaces, which allows, in a general sense, for the laser-assisted ‘‘printing’’ of materials.
The physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas at the interface between insulating SrTiO3 and LaAlO3 have remained a contentious subject since its discovery in 2004. Opinion is divided between an intrinsic mechanism involving the build-up of an internal electric potential due to the polar discontinuity at the interface between SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, and extrinsic mechanisms attributed to structural imperfections.
Sequential printing by laser-induced forward transfer to fabricate a polymer light-emitting diode pixel
Patterned deposition of polymer light-emitting diode (PLED) pixels is a challenge for electronic display applications. PLEDs have additional problems requiring solvent orthogonality of different materials in adjacent layers. We present the fabrication of a PLED pixel by the sequential deposition of two different layers with laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT), a “dry” deposition technique. This novel use of LIFT has been compared to “normal” LIFT, where all the layers are transferred in a single step, and a conventional PLED fabrication process.
X-ray near edge absorption spectroscopy was used to probe the electronic structure of multiferroic orthorhombic LuMnO3 polycrystalline samples and strained, twin-free orthorhombic (1–10) LuMnO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition on (1–10) YAlO3 substrates. For all o-LuMnO3 samples x-ray near edge absorption spectroscopy spectra reveal that the pre-edge structure is influenced by the increase in MnO6 distortion as a result of the smaller Re-ion or film strain. Furthermore there is clear evidence of anisotropic Mn-O bonding and Mn orbital ordering along the c- and  direction. The experimental film and bulk data are in agreement with ab initio simulations.
Red-green-blue polymer light-emitting diode pixels printed by optimized laser-induced forward transfer
An optimized laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) technique has been used to fabricate tri-color organic light-emitting diode (OLED) pixels. At reduced pressures, and with a defined donor-receiver gap, patterned depositions of polyfluorene-based OLED pixels have been achieved. OLED pixel functionality has been demonstrated and compared with devices made using conventional deposition techniques. In addition, improved functionality has been obtained by coating the cathode with an electron-injecting layer, a process not possible using conventional OLED fabrication techniques. The OLED pixels fabricated by LIFT reach efficiencies on the range of conventionally fabricated devices and even surpass them in the case of blue pixels.