Hot New Papers from LES

An internally consistent thermodynamic dataset for aqueous species in the system Ca-Mg-Na-K-Al-Si-O-H-C-Cl to 800 ˚C and 5 kbar

An internally consistent thermodynamic dataset for aqueous species in the system Ca-Mg-Na-K-Al-Si-O-H-C-Cl was generated using the thermodynamic database for minerals of Holland and Powell (1998; updated Thermocalc dataset ds55). This dataset makes it possible to perform geochemical and reactive transport modeling with high levels of accuracy and reliability.
The stability of major aqueous complexes at elevated temperatures and pressures was constrained using selected reaction constant data (for example plot A and B). The Gibbs energy of formation of aqueous ions and complexes was simultaneously optimized with GEMSFITS against a large selection of solubility experiments over a wide range of conditions, taking the standard properties of minerals (unmodified) from the Holland and Powell internally consistent database (for example, plot C). The resulting thermodynamic dataset is consistent with the complex formation data, with the mineral solubility experiments, and with the standard properties of minerals from Holland and Powell database. The internally consistent dataset can be used to model natural fluid-rock interaction (for example, plot D).
Comparison of calculated and measured experimental data for: (A) the stability constant of HCO3- as function of pressure at temperatures of 55, 150 and 250 °C; (B) the association constant of CaCl+ as function of temperature at saturated water vapor pressure; (C) calcite solubility in NaCl solutions at 400 °C; (D) log(Ca/Mg) molar ratios from sedimentary fluids in equilibrium with calcite and disordered dolomite, at temperatures of 50 to 150 °C and at saturated water vapor pressure.
Citation: G.D. Miron, T. Wagner, D. Kulik, B. Lothenbach American Journal of Science 317 (2017) 755-806
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Deciphering pore-level precipitation mechanisms

Mineral precipitation and dissolution in aqueous solutions has a significant effect on solute transport and structural properties of porous media. The understanding of the involved physical mechanisms, which cover a large range of spatial and temporal scales, plays a key role in several geochemical and industrial processes. Here, by coupling pore scale reactive transport simulations with classical nucleation theory, we demonstrate how the interplay between homogeneous and heterogeneous precipitation kinetics along with the non-linear dependence on solute concentration affects the evolution of the system. Such phenomena are usually neglected in pure macroscopic modelling. Comprehensive parametric analysis and comparison with laboratory experiments confirm that incorporation of detailed microscale physical processes in the models is compulsory. This sheds light on the inherent coupling mechanisms and bridges the gap between atomistic processes and macroscopic observations.
Citation: N.I. Prasianakis, E. Curti, G. Kosakowski, J. Poonoosamy, S.V. Churakov Scientific Reports 7(1) (2017) 13765;10594
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Combined XAFS Spectroscopy and Ab Initio Study on the Characterization of Iron Incorporation by Montmorillonite

Iron occurs in clay minerals in both ferric and ferrous forms. Depending on its oxidation state and the environmental conditions, it can participate in redox reactions and influence the sorption processes at surfaces of clay minerals. Knowing the oxidation state and the preferential structural position of Fe2+ and Fe3+ is essential for the detailed understanding of the mechanism and kinetics of such processes. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) calculations based on density functional theory (DFT+U) were applied to simulate the incorporated Fe in bulk montmorillonite and to explain the measured Fe K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra. The analysis of the experimental data and simulation results suggested that iron in montmorillonite is preferentially incorporated as Fe3+ into the octahedral layer. The simulations showed that there is no preferential occupation of cis- or trans-sites by Fe2+ and Fe3+ in bulk montmorillonite. A very good agreement between the ab initio simulated and the measured XAFS spectra demonstrate the robustness of the employed simulation approach.
Citation: A.Kéri, R. Dähn, M. Krack, S.V. Churakov Environmental Science & Technology 51(18) (2017) 10585–10594
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Thermodynamics and Molecular Mechanism of Al Incorporation in Calcium Silicate Hydrates

Quantitative description of thermodynamic and molecular mechanism of Al incorporation into calcium-silicate hydrates (C-S-H), the main binder in hydrated cement paste, is essential for development of novel cementitious materials with a lower CO2 footprint. Thermodynamics integration based on ab initio molecular dynamic simulations was applied to estimate the Gibbs free energy of the Al exchange between different silica tetrahedral sites forming the dreierketten-chains at the C-S-H surface and aqueous Al(OH)4 anions. The calculations confirm that the Al substitute for Si into bridging tetrahedral sites with an estimated equilibrium constant KAl/Si ∼ 1. Al for Si substitution is further found to favor the crosslinking between adjacent chains of the same C-S-H layer. This result is in a good agreement with recent conclusions made from 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopy results. Mesoscale Monte Carlo simulations were performed with the calculated KAl/Si to interpret experimental observations of Al incorporation into C-S-H. The simulation results suggest that the chemical affinity of Al to C-S-H is controlled by electrostatic interactions and the Al(OH)4/Si(OH)3O aqueous molar ratio.
Citation: S.V. Churakov, C. Labbez Journal of Physical Chemistry C 121 (2017) 4412-4419
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Importance of Interlayer Equivalent Pores for Anion Diffusion in Clay-Rich Sedimentary Rocks

The anion exclusion behavior in two different clay stones, Opalinus Clay (OPA) and Helvetic Marl (HM), was studied using a well-established experimental through-diffusion technique. The ionic strength of the pore water was varied between 0.01 and 5 M to evaluate its effect on the diffusion of HTO and 36Cl. The total porosity determined by HTO-diffusion was independent of the ionic strength, while the anion accessible porosity varies with the ionic strength of the pore water. In the case of Opalinus Clay, the anion accessible porosity increases from 3% at low ionic strength (0.01 M) up to 8.4% at high ionic strength (5 M), whereas the anion accessible porosity of Helvetic Marl increases from 0.6% up to only 1.1%. The anion exclusion effect in HM is thus more pronounced than that in OPA, even at high ionic strength. This observation can be correlated to differences in mineralogy and to the fact that HM has a larger fraction of interlayer equivalent pores. Interlayer equivalent pores are small pores in compressed clay stones that are small enough to have, because of overlapping electric double layers, properties similar to those of interlayers and are therefore rather inaccessible for anions.
Citation: C. Wigger, L.R. Van Loon Environmental Science & Technology 51 (2017) 1998-2006
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Sorption of trivalent lanthanides and actinides onto montmorillonite: Macroscopic, thermodynamic and structural evidence for ternary hydroxo and carbonato surface complexes on multiple sorption sites

The credibility of long-term safety assessments of radioactive waste repositories may be greatly enhanced by a molecular level understanding of the sorption processes onto individual minerals present in the near- and far-fields. In this study we couple macroscopic sorption experiments to surface complexation modelling and spectroscopic investigations, including extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopies (TRLFS), to elucidate the uptake mechanism of trivalent lanthanides and actinides (Ln/AnIII) by montmorillonite in the absence and presence of dissolved carbonate. Based on the experimental sorption isotherms for the carbonate-free system, the previously developed sorption model needed to be complemented with an additional surface complexation reaction onto a weak site. The sorption isotherms in the presence of carbonate required refinement of the previously published model by reducing the strong-site capacity and by adding the formation of Ln/AnIII-carbonato complexes both on strong and weak sites. EXAFS spectra of selected Am samples and TRLFS spectra of selected Cm samples corroborate the model assumptions by showing the existence of different surface complexation sites and evidencing the formation of Ln/AnIII carbonate surface complexes. In the absence of carbonate and at low loadings, Ln/AnIII form strong inner-sphere complexes through binding to three Al(O,OH)6 octahedra, most likely by occupying vacant sites in the octahedral layers of montmorillonite, which are exposed on {010} and {110} edge faces. At higher loadings, Ln/AnIII binds to only one Al octahedron, forming a weaker, edge-sharing surface complex. In the presence of carbonate, we identified a ternary mono- or dicarbonato Ln/AnIII complex binding directly to one Al(O,OH)6 octahedron, revealing that type-A ternary complexes form with the one or two carbonate groups pointing away from the surface into the solution phase. Within the spectroscopically observable concentration range these complexes could only be identified on the weak sites, in line with the small strong site capacity suggested by the sorption model. When the solubility of carbonates was exceeded, formation of an Am carbonate hydroxide could be identified. The excellent agreement between the thermodynamic model parameters developed by fitting the macroscopic data, and the spectroscopically identified mechanisms, demonstrates the mature state of the 2SPNE SC/CE model for predicting and quantifying the retention of Ln/AnIII elements by montmorillonite-rich clay rocks.
Citation: M.Marques Fernandes, A.C. Scheinost, B. Baeyens Water Research 99 (2016) 74-82
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Computational methods for reactive transport modeling: An extended law of mass-action, xLMA, method for multiphase equilibrium calculations

We present an extended law of mass-action (xLMA) method for multiphase equilibrium calculations and apply it in the context of reactive transport modeling. This extended LMA formulation differs from its conventional counterpart in that (i) it is directly derived from the Gibbs energy minimization (GEM) problem (i.e., the fundamental problem that describes the state of equilibrium of a chemical system under constant temperature and pressure); and (ii) it extends the conventional mass-action equations with Lagrange multipliers from the Gibbs energy minimization problem, which can be interpreted as stability indices of the chemical species. Accounting for these multipliers enables the method to determine all stable phases without presuming their types (e.g., aqueous, gaseous) or their presence in the equilibrium state. Therefore, the here proposed xLMA method inherits traits of Gibbs energy minimization algorithms that allow it to naturally detect the phases present in equilibrium, which can be single-component phases (e.g., pure solids or liquids) or non-ideal multi-component phases (e.g., aqueous, melts, gaseous, solid solutions, adsorption, or ion exchange). Moreover, our xLMA method requires no technique that tentatively adds or removes reactions based on phase stability indices (e.g., saturation indices for minerals), since the extended mass-action equations are valid even when their corresponding reactions involve unstable species. We successfully apply the proposed method to a reactive transport modeling problem in which we use PHREEQC and GEMS as alternative backends for the calculation of thermodynamic properties such as equilibrium constants of reactions, standard chemical potentials of species, and activity coefficients. Our tests show that our algorithm is efficient and robust for demanding applications, such as reactive transport modeling, where it converges within 1–3 iterations in most cases. The proposed xLMA method is implemented in Reaktoro, a unified open-source framework for modeling chemically reactive systems.
Citation: A.M.M. Leal, D.A. Kulik, G. Kosakowski, M.O. Saar Advances in Water Resources 96 (2016) 405-422
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Application of micro X-ray diffraction to investigate the reaction products formed by the alkali–silica reaction in concrete structures

Alkali–silica reaction (ASR) is one of the most important deterioration mechanisms in concrete leading to substantial damages of structures worldwide. Synchrotron-based micro-X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD) was employed to characterize the mineral phases formed in micro-cracks of concrete aggregates as a consequence of ASR. This high spatial resolution technique enables to directly gain structural information on ASR products formed in a 40-year old motorway bridge damaged due to ASR. Micro-X-ray-fluorescence was applied on thin sections to locate the reaction products formed in veins within concrete aggregates. Micro-XRD pattern were collected at selected points of interest along a vein by rotating the sample. Rietveld refinement determined the structure of the ASR product consisting of a new layered frame- work similar to mountainite and rhodesite. It is conceivable that understanding the structure of the ASR product may help developing new technical treatments inhibiting ASR.
Citation: R. Dähn, A. Arakcheeva, Ph. Schaub, P. Pattison, G. Chapuis, D. Grolimund, E. Wieland, A. Leemann Cement and Concrete Research 79 (2016) 49-56
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Sorption and diffusion studies with low molecular weight organic compounds in cementitious systems

The uptake of methanol, ethanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, formic acid and acetic acid by cement paste was determined in hydrating cement after 1h, 28 d and 390 d hydration. The sorption values determined for formate and acetate were critically assessed by investigating through- and out-diffusion of these compounds in fully hydrated cement paste and their uptake by individual cement phases. Diffusion studies included inverse modelling of four data sets for each compound and an uncertainty analysis based on a Latin hypercube sampling procedure. Solid-liquid distribution ratios determined from the hydration experiments are of the order of 10-4 m3 kg-1 in case of alcohols and aldehydes indicating non-specific (very weak) bonding onto the surface of the cement phases, e.g. through hydrogen bonding. Hydration and diffusion studies reveal slightly higher distribution ratios and reversible uptake by cement paste and cement phases in the case of acetate indicating specific adsorption (electrostatic interaction) onto partially positively charged surface sites of the cement phases. Selective binding of a small fraction of formate is evidenced from both sorption and out-diffusion experiments suggesting the presence of sorption sites capable of strongly bonding the anion, presumably by SO42-/HCOO- replacement in the ettringite structure.
Citation: E. Wieland, A. Jakob, J. Tits, B. Lothenbach, D. Kunz Applied Geochemistry 67 (2016) 101-117
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Formation and stability of 14C-containing organic compounds in alkaline iron-water systems: preliminary assessment based on a literature survey and thermodynamic modelling

Carbon-14 is an important radionuclide in the inventory of radioactive waste and is considered to be a key radionuclide in performance assessment. In Switzerland, the 14C inventory in a cement-based repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste is mainly associated with activated steel (∼85 %). Anaerobic corrosion of the activated steel will determine the time-dependent release of 14C bearing compounds from the cementitious near field into the host rock. The present study was carried out to provide an overview on the current state of the art knowledge regarding the carbon speciation during the anaerobic corrosion of activated and non-activated iron/steel and to critically assess the capability of thermodynamic modelling to predict 14C speciation in anoxic alkaline conditions. Previous experimental work showed the presence of oxidized and reduced hydrocarbons during corrosion in iron-water systems in anoxic (near neutral to alkaline) conditions which appears to be inconsistent with the negative redox potential of the system. The capability of thermodynamic modelling to predict the carbon speciation in these conditions was found to be limited due to uncertainties associated with the concept of metastability in the C-H-O system.
Citation: E. Wieland, W. Hummel Mineralogical Magazine 79 (2015) 1275-1286
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Cation diffusion in the electrical double layer enhances the mass transfer rates for Sr2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ in compacted illite

Enhanced mass transfer rates have been frequently observed in diffusion studies with alkaline and earth alkaline elements in compacted clay minerals and clay rocks. Whether this phenomenon – often termed surface diffusion – is also relevant for more strongly sorbing species is an open question. We therefore investigated the diffusion of Sr2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ in compacted illite with respect to variations of the concentration of the background electrolyte, pH and carbonate. New experimental techniques were developed in order to avoid artefacts stemming from the confinement of the clay sample. A distinct dependence of the effective diffusion coefficients on the concentration of the background electrolyte was observed for all three elements. A similar correlation was found for the sorption distribution ratio (Rd) derived from tracer breakthrough in the case of Sr2+, while this dependence was much weaker for Co2+ and Zn2+. Model calculations using Phreeqc resulted in a good agreement with the experimental data when it was assumed that the cationic species, present in the electrical double layer (EDL) of the charged clay surface, are mobile. Species bound to the specific surface complexation sites at the clay edges were assumed to be immobile. An assessment of the mobility of the type of cationic elements studied here in argillaceous media thus requires an analysis of their distribution among specifically sorbed surface species and species in the EDL. The normal approach of deriving unknown effective diffusion coefficients from reference values of an uncharged water tracer may significantly underestimate the mobility of metal cations in argillaceous media.
Citation: M.A. Glaus, M. Aertsens, C.A.J. Appelo, T. Kupcik, N. Maes, L.Van Laer, L.R. Van Loon Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 165 (2015) 376-388
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Predicting the uptake of Cs, Co, Ni, Eu, Th and U on argillaceous rocks using sorption models for illite

Reliable predictions of radiocontaminant migration are a requirement for the establishment of radioactive waste repositories. Parametrization of the necessary sorption models seems to be, however, extremely challenging given the multi-mineralic composition of the lithosphere. In this study it is shown for two argillaceous rocks – Boda and Opalinus Clay relevant for the Hungarian and Swiss repository concepts, respectively – that this task can be substantially simplified by taking into account only the most sorptive mineral fraction, namely the 2:1 clay minerals illite and illite/smectite mixed layers. Two different models were required to blind predict the sorption isotherms of Cs, Co, Ni, Eu, Th and UO2 measured on the two clay rock samples in a synthetic porewater. Cs sorption was modelled with the generalised Cs (GCs) sorption model and the sorption of the other cations with the 2 site protolysis non electrostatic surface complexation and cation exchange (2SPNE SC/CE) model. The 2SPNE SC/CE model for illite was extended with surface complexation reactions on weak sites for Co, Ni, Eu, UO2 and on strong sites for Eu-carbonato complexes. Complementary to the sorption measurements and modelling, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was used to probe the retention mechanism of Ni on illite, Boda and Opalinus Clay at higher loadings. The reliable blind predictions of the selected metal cations, which are representative for monovalent alkaline metals, divalent transition metals, lanthanides, and trivalent, tetravalent and hexavalent actinides, confirms the applicability of this simplified bottom up approach, and, renders the underlying sorption models particularly useful to predict sorption for the wide range of cations to be considered in the safety analysis of radioactive waste repositories in clay-rich environments.
Citation: M. Marques Fernandes, N. Vér, B. Baeyens Applied Geochemistry 59 (2015) 189-199
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Treatment of boundary conditions in through-diffusion: A case study of 85Sr2+ diffusion in compacted illite

Valuable techniques to measure effective diffusion coefficients in porous media are an indispensable prerequisite for a proper understanding of the migration of chemical-toxic and radioactive micropollutants in the subsurface and geosphere. The present article discusses possible pitfalls and difficulties in the classical through-diffusion technique applied to situations where large diffusive fluxes of cations in compacted clay minerals or clay rocks occur. The results obtained from a benchmark study, in which the diffusion of 85Sr2+ tracer in compacted illite has been studied using different experimental techniques, are presented. It is shown that these techniques may yield valuable results provided that an appropriate model is used for numerical simulations. It is further shown that effective diffusion coefficients may be systematically underestimated when the concentration at the downstream boundary is not taken adequately into account in modelling, even for very low concentrations. A criterion is derived for quasi steady-state situations, by which it can be decided whether the simplifying assumption of a zero-concentration at the downstream boundary in through-diffusion is justified or not. The application of the criterion requires, however, knowledge of the effective diffusion coefficient of the clay sample. Such knowledge is often absent or only approximately available during the planning phase of a diffusion experiment.
Citation: M.A. Glaus, M. Aertsens, N. Maes, L.Van Laer, L.R. Van Loon Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 177-178 (2015) 239-248
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A modified version of Archie’s law to estimate effective diffusion coefficients of radionuclides in argillaceous rocks and its application in safety analysis studies

Because of the very low hydraulic conductivity of clay rocks, molecular diffusion is the main process responsible for the transport of radionuclides released from the waste matrix into the host rock. Diffusion values are thus important input parameters in safety analyses. Because diffusion measurements are very time consuming, it is impossible to measure diffusion coefficients for all radionuclides of interest. It is therefore important to develop procedures for doing reliable estimates of diffusion coefficients. Diffusion data of mainly tritiated water (HTO) and anions (I-, Cl-) measured in different sedimentary rocks were taken from the literature. The effective diffusion coefficient could be related to the transport porosity by an extended version of Archie’s law (e-Archie): De = Dw εm1 + B εm2 . The extended version deviates from the classical law at porosity values below ca. 0.1. Effective diffusion coefficients of HTO, 36Cl- and 22Na+ were measured for a series of Swiss clay rocks ("Brauner Dogger", Effingen Member, Opalinus Clay and Helvetic Marls) and for one Hungarian rock (Boda Claystone Formation) and could be satisfactorily described by the extended version of Archie’s law, bounded by an upper and a lower curve. A method was developed based on e-Archie for estimating effective diffusion coefficients for a series of radionuclides. Important input parameters are the accessible porosity of the rock and the diffusion coefficient of the radionuclide in water. In case of cations showing surface diffusion, a correction term was introduced based on the work of Gimmi and Kosakowski (2011).
Citation: L.R. Van Loon, J. Mibus Applied Geochemistry 59 (2015) 85-94
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Dissolution–precipitation processes in tank experiments for testing numerical models for reactive transport calculations: Experiments and modelling

In the context of testing reactive transport codes and their underlying conceptual models, a simple 2D reactive transport experiment was developed. The aim was to use simple chemistry and design a reproducible and fast to conduct experiment, which is flexible enough to include several process couplings: advective–diffusive transport of solutes, effect of liquid phase density on advective transport, and kinetically controlled dissolution/precipitation reactions causing porosity changes. A small tank was filled with a reactive layer of strontium sulfate (SrSO4) of two different grain sizes, sandwiched between two layers of essentially non-reacting quartz sand (SiO2). A highly concentrated solution of barium chloride was injected to create an asymmetric flow field. Once the barium chloride reached the reactive layer, it forced the transformation of strontium sulfate into barium sulfate (BaSO4). Due to the higher molar volume of barium sulfate, its precipitation caused a decrease of porosity and lowered the permeability. Changes in the flow field were observed with help of dye tracer tests. The experiments were modelled using the reactive transport code OpenGeosys-GEM. Tests with non-reactive tracers performed prior to barium chloride injection, as well as the density-driven flow (due to the high concentration of barium chloride solution), could be well reproduced by the numerical model. To reproduce the mineral bulk transformation with time, two populations of strontium sulfate grains with different kinetic rates of dissolution were applied. However, a default porosity permeability relationship was unable to account for measured pressure changes. Post mortem analysis of the strontium sulfate reactive medium provided useful information on the chemical and structural changes occurring at the pore scale at the interface that were considered in our model to reproduce the pressure evolution with time.
Citation: J. Poonoosamy, G. Kosakowski, L.R. Van Loon, U. Mäder Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 177–178 (2015) 1–17
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Competitive Fe(II)-Zn(II) Uptake on a Synthetic Montmorillonite

The interaction of Fe(II) with clay minerals is of particular relevance in global geochemical processes controlling metal and nutrient cycles and the fate of contaminants. In this context, the influence of competitive sorption effects between Fe(II) and other relevant transition metals on their uptake characteristics and mobility remains an important issue. Macroscopic sorption experiments combined with surface complexation modelling and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy were applied to elucidate competitive sorption processes between divalent Fe and Zn at the clay mineral-water interface. Sorption isotherms were measured on a synthetic iron-free montmorillonite (IFM) under anoxic conditions (O2 <0.1 ppm) for the combinations of Zn(II)/Fe(II) and Fe(II)/Zn(II), where the former metal in each pair represents the trace metal (<10-7 M) and the latter the competing metal at higher concentrations (10-7 to 10-3 M). Results of the batch sorption and EXAFS measurements indicated that Fe(II) is competing with trace Zn(II) for the same type of strong sites if Fe(II) is present in excess, whereas no competition between trace Fe(II) and Zn(II) was observed if Zn(II) is present at high concentrations. The non-competitive behaviour suggests the existence of sorption sites where surface-induced oxidation of the sorbed Fe(II) to Fe(III) occurs and which have a higher affinity for Fe(III) and are not accessible for Zn(II). The understanding of this competitive uptake mechanism between Fe(II) and Zn(II) is of great importance to assess the bioavailability and mobility of transition metals in the natural environment.
Citation: D. Soltermann, M. Marques Fernandes, B. Baeyens, J. Miehé-Brendlé, R. Dähn Environmental Science & Technology 48 (2014), 190–198
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Fe(II) Uptake on Natural Montmorillonites. I. Macroscopic and Spectroscopic Characterization

Iron is an important redox-active element that is ubiquitous in both engineered and natural environments. In this study, the retention mechanism of Fe(II) on clay minerals was investigated using macroscopic sorption experiments combined with Mössbauer and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Sorption edges and isotherms were measured under anoxic conditions on natural Fe-bearing montmorillonites (i.e. STx, SWy and SWa) having different structural Fe contents ranging from 0.5 to 15.4 wt % and different initial Fe redox states. Batch experiments indicated that, in case of low Fe-bearing (STx) and dithionite-reduced clays, the Fe(II) uptake follows well the sorption behavior of other divalent transition metals, whereas Fe(II) sorption increased by up to two orders of magnitude on the unreduced, Fe(III)-rich montmorillonites (SWy and SWa). Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis revealed that nearly all the sorbed Fe(II) was oxidized to surface-bound Fe(III) and secondary Fe(III) precipitates were formed on the Fe(III)-rich montmorillonite, while sorbed Fe is predominantly present as Fe(II) on Fe-low and dithionite-reduced clays. The results provide compelling evidence that Fe(II) uptake characteristics on clay minerals are strongly correlated to the redox properties of the structural Fe(III). The improved understanding of the interfacial redox interactions between sorbed Fe(II) and clay minerals gained in this study is essential for future studies developing Fe(II) sorption models on natural montmorillonites.
Citation: D. Soltermann, M. Marques Fernandes, B. Baeyens, R. Dähn, P.A. Joshi, A.C. Scheinost, C.A. Gorski Environmental Science & Technology 48 (2014), 8688-8697
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Fe(II) Uptake on Natural Montmorillonites. II. Surface Complexation Modeling

Fe(II) sorption edges and isotherms have been measured on low structural Fe-content montmorillonite (STx) and high structural Fe-content montmorillonite (SWy) under anoxic (O2 < 0.1 ppm) and strongly reducing conditions (Eh = -0.64 V). Under anoxic conditions Fe(II) sorption on SWy was significantly higher than on STx, whereas the sorption under reducing conditions was essentially the same. The uptake behavior of Fe(II) on STx under all redox conditions (Eh = +0.28 to -0.64 V) and SWy under reducing conditions (Eh = -0.64 V) was consistent with previous measurements made on other divalent transition metals. All of the sorption data could be modeled with the two-site protolysis nonelectrostatic surface complexation and cation exchange (2SPNE SC/CE) sorption model including an additional surface complexation reaction for Fe(II) which involved the surface oxidation of ferrous iron surface complexes (≡SS,WOFe+) to ferric iron surface complexes (≡SS,WOFe2+) on both the strong and weak sites. The electron acceptor sites on the montmorillonite are postulated to be the structural Fe(III).
Citation: D. Soltermann, B. Baeyens, M.H. Bradbury, M. Marques Fernandes Environmental Science & Technology 48 (2014), 8698–8705
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A luminescence line-narrowing spectroscopic study of the uranium(VI) interaction with cementitious materials and titanium dioxide

Non-selective luminescence spectroscopy and luminescence line-narrowing spectroscopy were used to study the retention of UO22+ on titanium dioxide (TiO2), synthetic calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) phases and hardened cement paste (HCP). Non-selective luminescence spectra showed strong inhomogeneous line broadening resulting from a strongly disordered UO22+ bonding environment. This problem was largely overcome by using luminescence line-narrowing spectroscopy. This technique allowed unambiguous identification of three different types of UO22+ sorbed species on C-S-H phases and HCP. Comparison with spectra of UO22+ sorbed onto TiO2 further allowed these species to be assigned to a surface complex, an incorporated species and an uranate-like surface precipitate. This information provides the basis for mechanistic models describing the UO22+ sorption onto C-S-H phases and HCP and the assessment of the mobility of this radionuclide in a deep geological repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (L/ILW) as this kind of waste is often solidified with cement prior to storage.
Citation: J. Tits, C. Walther, T. Stumpf, N. Macé, E. Wieland. Dalton Transactions 44 (2015) 966-976
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The influence of stable element inventory on the migration of radionuclides in the vicinity of a high level nuclear waste repository exemplified for 59Ni

A generic modelling approach has been used to estimate the influence of the stable inventory, i.e. stable isotopes in a radioactive waste repository on the migration of radionuclides from waste canisters into the surrounding bentonite or Opalinus Clay. The model radionuclide chosen was bivalent 59Ni(II); the stable isotopes Ni(II), Fe(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and Cu(II) are considered to be competitive for the same sorption sites on bentonite or Opalinus Clay. A simplified one-dimensional modelling approach in space was used for reactive transport calculations using the MCOTAC code incorporating the 2SPNE SC/CE sorption model. Calculated 59Ni(II) breakthrough curves in bentonite and Opalinus Clay are compared to estimates of the influences of the individual competing metals present in the porewaters. Generally, faster migration, i.e. a reduced sorption, for 59Ni(II) was calculated – up to two orders of magnitude in arrival time at specified locations in the bentonite or Opalinus Clay. This influence is a max- imum for highest specified stable isotope concentrations. Fe, Zn and Mn have approximately the same effect on the migration of 59Ni(II); Cu has the potential for a much stronger effect. However, their individual effects at reducing the retardation of 59Ni(II) through sorption competition do not sum up linearly. In the various scenarios calculated, an upper limit for the reduction of the retardation of 59Ni(II) has been assessed for the combined sorption competition influence of all the stable isotopes. Although the calculated scenarios include several simplifications, they cover a wide range of combina- tions of sorption competition effects of stable isotopes present in a high-level waste repository on the migration of radioactive 59Ni(II). More detailed scenario calculations would be possible if a more detailed ‘‘geochemical inventory’’ of radionuclides and stable isotopes were to become available. Nevertheless, upper limits for the effects of sorption competition of bivalent stable isotopes on the migration of 59Ni in the vicinity of a high-level nuclear waste repository were assessed.
Citation: W. Pfingsten. Applied Geochemistry 49 (2014) 103-115
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Resolving diffusion in clay minerals at different time scales: Combination of experimental and modeling approaches

Since no single experimental or modeling technique provides data that allow a description of transport processes in clays and clay minerals at all relevant scales, several complementary approaches have to be combined to understand and explain the interplay between transport relevant phenomena. In this paper molecular dynamics simulations (MD) were used to investigate the mobility of water in the interlayer of montmorillonite (Mt), and to estimate the influence of mineral surfaces and interlayer ions on the water diffusion. Random Walk (RW) simulations based on a simplified representation of pore space in Mt were used to estimate and understand the effect of the arrangement of Mt particles on the meso- to macroscopic diffusivity of water. These theoretical calculations were complemented with quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements of aqueous diffusion in Mt with two pseudo-layers of water performed at four significantly different energy resolutions (i.e. observation times). The size of the interlayer and the size of Mt particles are two characteristic dimensions which determine the time dependent behavior of water diffusion in Mt. MD simulations show that at very short time scales water dynamics has the characteristic features of an oscillatory motion in the cage formed by neighbors in the first coordination shell. At longer time scales, the interaction of water with the surface determines the water dynamics, and the effect of confinement on the overall water mobility within the interlayer becomes evident. At time scales corresponding to an average water displacement equivalent to the average size of Mt particles, the effects of tortuosity are observed in the meso- to macroscopic pore scale simulations. Consistent with the picture obtained in the simulations, the QENS data can be described using a (local) 3D diffusion at short observation times, whereas at sufficiently long observation times a 2D diffusive motion is clearly observed. The effects of tortuosity measured in macroscopic tracer diffusion experiments are in qualitative agreement with RW simulations. By using experimental data to calibrate molecular and mesoscopic theoretical models, a consistent description of water mobility in clay minerals from the molecular to the macroscopic scale can be achieved. In turn, simulations help in choosing optimal conditions for the experimental measurements and the data interpretation.
Citation: S.V. Churakov, Th. Gimmi, T. Unruh, L.R. Van Loon , F. Juranyi. Applied Clay Science 96 (2014) 36-44
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Intrinsic acidity of surface sites in calcium silicate hydrates and its implication to their electrokinetic properties

Calcium Silicate Hydrates (C−S−H) are the major hydration products of portland cement paste. The accurate description of acid−base reactions at the surface of C−S−H particles is essential for both understanding the ion sorption equilibrium in cement and prediction of mechanical properties of the hardened cement paste. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at the density functional level of theory were applied to calculate intrinsic acidity constants (pKa’s) of the relevant -SiOH and -CaOH2 groups on the C−S−H surfaces using a thermodynamic integration technique. Ion sorption equilibrium in C−S−H was modeled applying ab initio calculated pKa’s in titrating Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations using a coarse-grained model for C−S−H/solution interface in the framework of the Primitive Model for electrolytes. The modeling results were compared with available data from electrophoretic measurements. The model predictions were found to satisfactorily reproduce available experimental data.
Citation: S.V. Churakov, Ch. Labbez, L. Pegado, M. Sulpizi. J. Phys. Chem. C 118 (2014) 11752–11762
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A unified approach to model uptake kinetics of trace elements in complex aqueous – solid solution systems

Thermodynamics alone is usually not sufficient to predict growth-rate dependencies of trace element partitioning into host mineral solid solutions. In this contribution, two uptake kinetic models were analyzed that are promising in terms of mechanistic understanding and potential for implementation in geochemical modelling codes. The growth Surface Entrapment Model (Watson, 2004) and the Surface Reaction Kinetic Model (DePaolo, 2011) were shown to be complementary, and under certain assumptions merged into a single analytical expression. This Unified Uptake Kinetics Model was implemented in GEMS3K and GEM-Selektor codes (, a Gibbs energy minimization package for geochemical modelling. This implementation extends the applicability of the unified uptake kinetics model to accounting for non-trivial factors influencing the trace element partitioning into solid solutions, such as the changes in aqueous solution composition and speciation, or the depletion effects in closed geochemical systems.
Citation: B.M.J Thien, D.A. Kulik, E. Curti. Applied Geochemistry 41 (2014) 135-150
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A simple way to constrain the stoichiometry of secondary smectites upon aqueous glass alteration

The comparison of the stoichiometry of several nuclear waste glasses and basaltic glasses with their associated secondary smectites evidenced that Si/Al ratios of secondary smectites are nearly equal to the Si/Al ratios of parent glasses. This information may be very useful in constraining secondary smectites structure and stoichiometry in cases where other identification methods are difficult to apply.
Citation: B.M.J Thien. Applied Geochemistry 42 (2014) 45-46
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Influence of superplasticizers on the long-term properties of cement pastes and possible impact on radionuclide uptake in a cement-based repository for radioactive waste

Cementitious materials will be used for the construction of the engineered barrier of the planned repositories for radioactive waste in Switzerland. Superplasticizers (SPs) are commonly used to improve the workability of concretes and, along with a set accelerator (Acc), to produce shotcrete. In this study the influence of a polycarboxylate- (PCE) and a polynaphthalene-sulphonate-based (PNS) SP on the hydration process, mineral composition and the sorption behaviour of metal cations has been investigated using an ordinary Portland cement (OPC), a low-alkali cement mix (LAC) consisting of CEM III-type cement and nanosilica, and a shotcrete-type cement mix (ESDRED) consisting of a CEM I-type cement and silica fume prepared in the presence of an alkali-free set accelerator. Both the PCE and PNS SP do not significantly influence the amount and quantity of hydrates formed during hydration. The concentration of both SPs decreased rapidly in the early stage of the hydration process for all cements due to sorption onto cement phases. After 28 days of hydration and longer, the concentration of the PNS SP in the pore fluids of all cements was generally lower than that of the PCE SP, indicating stronger uptake of the PNS SP. The formate present in the Acc sorbs only weakly onto the cement phases, which led to higher aqueous concentration of organics in the ESDRED cement than in OPC and LAC. Sorption experiments with 63Ni, 152Eu and 228Th on a cation exchange resin indicate that, at concentrations above 0.1 g L-1, the two SPs could form complexes with the metal cations. Thermodynamic modelling further indicates that radionuclide complexation by formate at the concentration level in Acc can be excluded, suggesting that the apparent effect of Acc in the sorption measurements on the resin can be attributed to colloids formed owing to the high concentrations of Al and S in Acc. Sorption studies with the same radionuclides on hardened cement paste (HCP) in the presence of concrete admixture solutions and pore fluids squeezed from cement pastes further revealed no significant effect on sorption by either the concrete admixtures or their degradation products that were potentially present in the pore fluids. This finding suggests that the investigated concrete admixtures (PNS, PCE, Acc) and their degradation products have no significant impact on radionuclide mobilization.

This article is the result of a collaboration between the Laboratory for Waste Management at PSI and the Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry at EMPA. Partial financial support was provided by the Mt. Terri Project (Cement-Opalinus Clay Interaction (CI)) and the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra).
Citation: E. Wieland, B. Lothenbach , M. A. Glaus, T. Thoenen, B. Schwyn. Applied Geochemistry 49 (2014) 126-142
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A modified version of the combined in-diffusion/abrasive peeling technique for measuring diffusion of strongly sorbing radionuclides in argillaceous rocks: a test study on the diffusion of caesium in Opalinus Clay

A filter free diffusion set-up was developed for measuring the diffusion of strongly sorbing radionuclides in indurated argillaceous rocks such as Opalinus Clay (OPA) that normally disintegrate when contacted with a solution. Small bore cores drilled parallel to the bedding plane and embedded in epoxy resin were found to be stable and could be used as such for performing in-diffusion measurements. The method was tested with the diffusion of caesium, spiked with caesium-134, in Opalinus Clay. The profile of Cs in the clay sample was determined with a modified version of the abrasive peeling technique. The diffusion parameters obtained for caesium were in fair agreement with those determined earlier using the classical through-diffusion technique where stainless steel filters were used to confine the samples.
Citation: L.R. Van Loon and W. Müller. Applied Radiation and Isotopes (2014)
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Influence of the redox state on the neptunium sorption under alkaline conditions: Batch sorption studies on titanium dioxide and calcium silicate hydrates

Wet chemistry experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of the redox state and aqueous speciation on the uptake of neptunium by titanium dioxide (TiO2) and by calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) under alkaline conditions. TiO2 was chosen as a reference sorbent to determine the surface complexation behaviour of neptunium under alkaline conditions. C-S-H phases are important constituents of cement and concrete. They may contribute significantly to radionuclide retention due to their high recrystallization ratesmaking incorporation the dominating sorption mechanism for many radionuclides (e.g. the actinides) on these materials. The sorption of neptunium on both solids was found to depend strongly on the degree of hydrolysis. On TiO2 Rd values for Np(IV), Np(V) and Np(VI) are identical at pH = 10 and decrease with progressing hydrolysis in case of Np(V) and Np(VI). On C-S-H phases, Rd values for the three redox states are also identical at pH = 10. While the Rd values for Np(VI) sorption on C-S-H phases decrease with progressing hydrolysis, the Rd values for Np(IV) and Np(V) sorption are not affected by the pH. In addition to the effect of hydrolysis, the presence of Ca is found to promote Np(V) and Np(VI) sorption on TiO2 whereas on C-S-H phases, the present wet chemistry data do not give unambiguous evidence. Thus, the aqueous speciation appears to have a similar influence on the sorption of the actinides on both types of solids despite the different sorption mechanism. The similar Rd values for Np(IV,V,VI) sorption at pH = 10 can be explained qualitatively by invoking inter-ligand electrostatic repulsion between OH groups in the coordination sphere of Np(V) and Np(VI). This mechanism was proposed earlier in the literature for the prediction of actinide complexation constants with inorganic ligands. A limiting coordination number for each Np redox state, resulting from the inter-ligand electrostatic repulsion, allows the weaker sorption of the highest hydrolysed Np(V,VI) species to be explained.
Citation: Jan Tits, Andreas Laube, Erich Wieland, Xavier Gaona. Radiochim. Acta (2014)
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Mechanism of Aluminium incorporation into C-S-H from ab initio calculations

Blended cements have great potential to reduce the CO2 footprint due to cement production. C(alcium)– S(ilicate)–H(ydrate) in these novel materials is known to incorporate a considerable amount of Al. We have for the first time applied large-scale first principles calculations to address the mechanism of Al incorporation into low C/S ratio C–S–H. In agreement with state-of-the-art NMR information, our calculations show that Al substitutes Si in bridging tetrahedra only, and that substitutions in pairing tetrahedra are strongly disfavoured in a wide range of conditions. In broad terms, the energy penalty for having an Al atom in a pairing position is of about 20 kcal mol-1. Al in bridging tetrahedra is therefore the thermodynamically favoured state, rather than merely a kinetically trapped one in a solid–liquid equilibrium known experimentally to take a very long time to reach. A systematic investigation of Al–Al and defect–Al correlations shows that having two Al atoms as next-neighbours is particularly unfavourable, which gives clues on the limit of Al incorporation into C–S–H. All in all, the current work supports the model and methodology employed to pursue further studies in such materials (e.g., higher C/S ratio systems), in the context of what is still the open question of the structure of C–S–H.
Citation: Luis Pegado, Christophe Labbez and Sergey V. Churakov. J. Mater. Chem. A, 2014, 2, 3477-3483 (2014)
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Anisotropic diffusion at the field scale in a 4-year multi-tracer diffusion and retention experiment – I: Insights from the experimental data

Claystones are considered worldwide as barrier materials for nuclear waste repositories. In the Mont Terri underground research laboratory (URL), a nearly 4-year diffusion and retention (DR) experiment has been performed in Opalinus Clay. It aimed at (1) obtaining data at larger space and time scales than in laboratory experiments and (2) under relevant in situ conditions with respect to pore water chemistry and mechanical stress, (3) quantifying the anisotropy of in situ diffusion, and (4) exploring possible effects of a borehole-disturbed zone. The experiment included two tracer injection intervals in a borehole perpendicular to bedding, through which traced artificial pore water (APW) was circulated, and a pressure monitoring interval. The APW was spiked with neutral tracers (HTO, HDO, H2O-18), anions (Br, I, SeO4), and cations (Na-22, Ba-133, Sr-85, Cs-137, Co-60, Eu-152, stable Cs, and stable Eu). Most tracers were added at the beginning, some were added at a later stage. The hydraulic pressure in the injection intervals was adjusted according to the measured value in the pressure monitoring interval to ensure transport by diffusion only. Concentration time-series in the APW within the borehole intervals were obtained, as well as 2D concentration distributions in the rock at the end of the experiment after overcoring and subsampling which resulted in ∼250 samples and ∼1300 analyses. As expected, HTO diffused the furthest into the rock, followed by the anions (Br, I, SeO4) and by the cationic sorbing tracers (Na-22, Ba-133, Cs, Cs-137, Co-60, Eu-152). The diffusion of SeO4 was slower than that of Br or I, approximately proportional to the ratio of their diffusion coefficients in water. Ba-133 diffused only into ∼0.1 m during the ∼4 a. Stable Cs, added at a higher concentration than Cs-137, diffused further into the rock than Cs-137, consistent with a non-linear sorption behavior. The rock properties (e.g., water contents) were rather homogeneous at the centimeter scale, with no evidence of a borehole-disturbed zone. In situ anisotropy ratios for diffusion, derived for the first time directly from field data, are larger for HTO and Na-22 (∼5) than for anions (∼3–4 for Br and I). The lower ionic strength of the pore water at this location (∼0.22 M) as compared to locations of earlier experiments in the Mont Terri URL (∼0.39 M) had no notable effect on the anion accessible pore fraction for Cl, Br, and I: the value of 0.55 is within the range of earlier data. Detailed transport simulations involving different codes will be presented in a companion paper.
Citation: Thomas Gimmi, Olivier X. Leupin, Jost Eikenberg, Martin A. Glaus, Luc R. Van Loon, H. Niklaus Waber, Paul Wersin, Hao A.O. Wang, Daniel Grolimund, Camelia N. Borca, Sarah Dewonck, Charles Wittebroodt. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 125, 373–393 (2014)
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