General beamline description and specificationsThe PHOENIX (Photons for the Exploration of Nature by Imaging and XAFS) beamline is dedicated to X-ray absorption (micro-) spectroscopy and imaging in the tender X-ray energy range of 0.4 to 0.8 keV. Due to its special energy range, PHOENIX is devoted to the study of light elements (K-edges of O-Fe, L –edges of Ca-Gd). A high photon flux is generated by an elliptical APPLE II undulator providing both linear and elliptical polarization. PHOENIX offers unique opportunities for high quality spectroscopy (i.e. EXAFS) and imaging of light elements, with the possibility of studying samples with low concentration. The beamline is equipped with two different end-stations providing state-of-the-art equipment to conduct X-ray micro-spectroscopic measurements (µ-XAS and µ-XRF) using fluorescence, absorption and total electron yield as detection methods. Chemical imaging of bulk samples can be done with spatial resolution in the micrometer range. Measurements can be conducted in different sample environments which include but not limited to liquid micro-jet, liquid flow cell and in situ titration cells. Current developments include a von Hamos emission spectrometer for use in the energy range 2-5 keV. Research at PHOENIX covers various fields, such as environmental sciences, catalysis, energy research, electrochemistry, cultural heritage and characterization of novel materials.
Examples of experiments which could be performed at the PHOENIX beamline :
- High quality EXAFS for low-Z elements, see for example Al K-edge in Vjunov et al.
- In situ XAS studies on functioning ion batteries, at the S K-edge in Gorlin et al., J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 (2015),
- Micro-spectroscopy on cultural heritage using micro-focused beam, e.g. Cato el al., Microchem. J. 126 (2016), and Meyer et al., Scanning (2017),
- XAS study of UV radiation damages in biological samples, e.g. J. Czapla-Masztafiak et al., Biophys. J. 110 (2016),
- Various liquid cells and liquid jets available for in-situ studies of chemical reactions (in collaboration).
The Phoenix Group is part of the Laboratory for Synchrotron Radiation and Femtochemistry (LSF).
|Energy range||0.8 - 8.0 keV PHOENIX I, 0.4 - 2.0 keV PHOENIX II|
|Flux (3 keV)||1 x 1011 ph/s/0.1%BW/400 mA|
|Energy resolution||1 x 10-4|
|Focused spot size||2.5 µm x 2.5 µm|
|Sample environments||Various sizes solid samples, pellets in vacuum; Moderate heating and cooling available; Titration cells, flow-through liquid cells, liquid jets (in collaboration)|