Facilities

The following facilities are operated by SACRE:

DRAGON

DRAGON (Diverse purpose aerosol generation facility) is a multi purpose aerosol generation facility to provide carrier gas-aerosol flow to various experimental facilities. It has been used in connection with such facilities as CONGA, POSEIDON, ARTIST and VEFITA for investigation of aerosol and iodine transport for source term analysis in several international and national research programs. DRAGON combines the aerosol generation, steam and air/nitrogen supply, heating, heat removal, and aerosol measurement systems. It has a maximum operation pressure of 10 bar and temperature of 330°C. DRAGON can be used for the generation of a wide range of aerosols with different size distributions and compositions by several different aerosol generation methods: plasma torches, fluidized bed generators, two-fluid nozzles, atomizers, and dry powder feeders. In addition, different species of iodine may also be generated and measured. The aerosol measurement devices include, e.g., low-pressure impactors, optical particle counters, electrical low-pressure impactors, condensation nucleus counters, photometers, and filters.


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PRECISE

The PRECISE facility is designed to study the reflux condensation phenomenon which occurs inside steam generator tubes of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) during design basis (DBA) and severe accidents. Reflux condensation is capable of removing residual decay heat from the reactor coolant system (RCS) thereby suppressing or, at least, delaying the core uncovery in a hypothetical loss of coolant accident (LOCA). A large number of studies concerning reflux condensation were done assuming no core damage conditions. In the PRECISE facility, we address severe accident scenarios where the reflux condensation process is influenced by the presence of noncondensable gases, such as hydrogen produced from oxidation of the fuel cladding.


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TRISTAN

The TRISTAN (Tube Rupture In Steam generator multi-phase flow investigations) is a versatile facility for the investigation of gas-water two-phase flow hydrodynamics. It is a rectangular steel channel of a square cross section of 0.5 x 0.5 m and an overall height of 6.2 m. Two Wire-Mesh Sensors (WMS) are used to characterize the interfacial structure of the two phase flow with high temporal (1 MHz) and spatial (3 mm) resolution. The facility is operated under ambient conditions.

TRISTAN was designed and constructed to characterize two-phase flow hydrodynamics in a steam generator of a pressurized water reactor under steam generator tube rupture conditions when the secondary side of the steam generator is filled with water. For this application, the facility was equipped with a tube bundle consisting of 221 stainless steel tubes. Tube breaks may be installed at different elevations to feed air or nitrogen into the main flow channel. The tube bundle may be removed and replaced with, e.g., a single tube, or any other internals depending on the application.


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VEFITA

VEFITA (Venting Filter Assessment) is a facility for the investigation of the filtered containment venting systems (FCVS). VEFITA is a full-height, reduced diameter mock-up facility of a wet scrubber consisting of an inlet gas sparger assembly, flow conditioning elements, and a droplet separator. The facility can be operated at a high pressure up to 4.5 bar(a) with the inlet pressure of 10 bar(a). Steam, nitrogen and a mixture of the two can be used with flow rates up to 1200 kg/h. The desired test aerosols are generated in the DRAGON aerosol generation facility, and they are mixed with the steam/nitrogen flow before being fed into the test facility. Different aerosol compositions and size distributions may be used, including soluble and insoluble aerosols as well as monodisperse spherical test aerosols. Similarly, different species of iodine may be generated and fed into the facility along with the steam/nitrogen mixture. For the determination of the decontamination factor, the concentration of aerosols and iodine are determined at the test section inlet and outlet. VEFITA is used both in international and national projects for the investigation of thermal-hydraulic behaviour of FCVS, as well as iodine and aerosol retention in the FCVS.


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