Dr. Benjamin Watts

photo of Benjamin Watts Beamline Scientist
Micro Spectroscopy Group

Paul Scherrer Institute
WSLA/126
5232 Villigen PSI
Switzerland

Telephone: +41 56 310 5516
E-mail: benjamin.watts@psi.ch





Curriculum vitae

Professional Experience and Education

2008 - present Beamline Scientist, PolLux, Laboratory for Synchrotron Radiation - Condensed Matter (LSC)
2006 - 2008 Research Assistant: North Carolina State University (permanently stationed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)
2005 Research Assistant: The University of Newcastle, Australia
2001 - 2006 Doctor of Philosophy (Physics), the University of Newcastle, Australia
Supervisors: Dr. Paul Dastoor and Dr. J. R. Fabien
Thesis: The Orientational Dynamics of γ-APS on Zinc Oxide Surfaces
1997 - 2000 Bachelor of Professional Science, the University of Newcastle, Australia

Current research interests

  • C K-edge NEXAFS and STXM of organic materials,
  • Imaging nano-structures in conjugated polymer based electronic devices,
  • Novel data analysis methods and the programming of analysis tools with graphical user interfaces

Memberships

  • NeXus International Advisory Committee (working group for scientific data formats)
  • European Materials Research Society
  • External proposal reviewer for the Canadian Light Source
  • External proposal reviewer for the Advanced Light Source
  • Advisory board for the SoftiMAX beamline, MAX IV

Publication List

Controlling optics contamination at the PolLux STXM
Watts B, Pilet N, Sarafimov B, Witte K, Raabe J
JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION 13, C04001 (2018).
DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/13/04/C04001

Exploiting atomic layer deposition for fabricating sub-10 nm X-ray lenses
Rösner B, Koch F, Döring F, Bosgra J, Guzenko Vitaliy A, Kirk E, Meyer M, Ornelas Joshua L, Fink Rainer H, Stanescu S, Swaraj S, Belkhou R, Watts B, Raabe J, David C
MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING 191, 91 (2018).
DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2018.01.033

Investigation of the foil structure and corrosion mechanisms of modern Zwischgold using advanced analysis techniques
Wu Q, Soppa K, Scherrer N, Watts B, Yokosawa T, Bernard L, Araki T, Döbeli M, Meyer M, Spiecker E, Fink Rainer H
JOURNAL OF CULTURAL HERITAGE 31, 122 (2018).
DOI: 10.1016/j.culher.2017.12.005

Highly Crystalline C8-BTBT Thin-Film Transistors by Lateral Homo-Epitaxial Growth on Printed Templates
Janneck R, Pilet N, Bommanaboyena S, Watts B, Heremans P, Genoe J, Rolin C
ADVANCED MATERIALS 29, 1703864 (2017).
DOI: 10.1002/adma.201703864

Nanoscale X-ray investigation of magnetic metallofullerene peapods
Fritz F, Westerström R, Kostanyan A, Schlesier C, Dreiser J, Watts B, Houben L, Luysberg M, Avdoshenko S, Popov A, Schneider C, Meyer C
NANOTECHNOLOGY 28, 435703 (2017).
DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aa8b4c

A NeXus/HDF5 based file format for STXM
Watts Benjamin, Raabe Joerg
XRM 2014: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 12TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON X-RAY MICROSCOPY 1696, 020042 (2016).
DOI: 10.1063/1.4937536

Additive Fabrication of Nanostructures with Focused Soft X-Rays
Späth A, Tu F, Vollnhals F, Drost M, Krick Calderón S, Watts B, Fink R, Marbach H
RSC ADVANCES 6, 98344 (2016).
DOI: 10.1039/c6ra18214c

Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells
Martins Murillo L, Ignazzi R, Eckert J, Watts B, Kaneno R, Zambuzzi Willian F, Daemen L, Saeki Margarida J, Bordallo Heloisa N
SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 6, 22478 (2016).
DOI: 10.1038/srep22478

Competition between phase separation and structure confinement in P3HT/PCDTBT heterojunctions: Influence on nanoscale charge transport
Rodríguez-Rodríguez Á, Soccio M, Martínez-Tong Daniel E, Ezquerra Tiberio A, Watts B, García-Gutiérrez M
POLYMER 77, 70 (2015).
DOI: 10.1016/j.polymer.2015.09.012

Nanoscale measurement of the absolute mass density of polymers
Watts Benjamin, Warnicke Peter, Pilet Nicolas, Raabe Joerg
PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE 212, 518-522 (2015).
DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201400124

The NeXus data format
Koennecke Mark, Akeroyd Frederick A, Bernstein Herbert J, Brewster Aaron S, Campbell Stuart I, Clausen Bjoern, Cottrell Stephen, Hoffmann Jens Uwe, Jemian Pete R, Maennicke David, Osborn Raymond, Peterson Peter F, Richter Tobias, Suzuki Jiro, Watts Benjamin, Wintersberger Eugen, Wuttke Joachim
JOURNAL OF APPLIED CRYSTALLOGRAPHY 48, 301-305 (2015).
DOI: 10.1107/S1600576714027575

Calculation of the Kramers-Kronig Transform of X-ray Spectra by a Piecewise Laurent Polynomial Method
B. Watts
OPTICS EXPRESS 22 (2014) 23628-23639
DOI: 10.1364/OE.22.023628

Identifying Photoreaction Products in Cinnamate-Based Photoalignment Materials
D.J. Adams, S. Chappellet, F. Lincker, M. Ibn-Elhaj, B. Watts, M. Iannuzzi, D.S. Jung, C.A. Pignedoli and D. Passerone
JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C 118 (2014) 15422-15433
DOI: 10.1021/jp504765f

Structural Determination of Protein-Based Polymer Blends with a Promising Tool: Combination of FTIR and STXM Spectroscopic Imaging
S. Ling, Z. Qi, B. Watts, Z. Shao and X. Chen
PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS 16 (2014) 7741-7748
DOI: 10.1039/c4cp00556b

Coherent X-ray Imaging: Bridging the Gap between Atomic and Micro-scale Investigations
M. Stampanoni, A. Menzel, B. Watts, K.S. Mader, O. Bunk
CHIMIA 68 (2014) 66-72
DOI: 10.2533/chimia.2014.66

Sub-25 nm Direct Write (Maskless) X-ray Nanolithography
A.F.G. Leontowich, A.P. Hitchcock, B. Watts and J. Raabe
MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING 108 (2013) 5-7
DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2013.03.006

Studying Polymer/Fullerene Intermixing and Miscibility in Laterally Patterned Films with X-Ray Spectromicroscopy
X.X. He, B.A. Collins, B. Watts, H. Ade and C.R. McNeill
SMALL 8 (2012) 1920-1927
DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102382

NEXAFS Imaging of Synthetic Organic Materials
B. Watts and H. Ade
MATERIALS TODAY 15 (2012) 148-157
DOI: 10.1016/S1369-7021(12)70068-8

Oligomeric Compatibilizers for Control of phase Separation in Conjugated Polymer Blend Films
J.E. Slota, E. Elmalem, G.L. Tu, B. Watts, J.F. Fang, P.M. Oberhumer, R.H. Friend and W.T.S. Huck
MACROMOLECULES 45 (2012) 1468-1475
DOI: 10.1021/ma201523m

Microstructure of Polycrystalline PBTTT Films: Domain Mapping and Structure Formation
T. Schüttfort, B. Watts, L. Thomsen, M. Lee, H. Sirringhaus and C.R. McNeill
ACS NANO 6 (2012) 1849-1864
DOI: 10.1021/nn2051295

Imaging Nanostructures in Organic Semiconductor Films with Scanning Transmission X-ray Spectro-Microscopy
B. Watts, C.R. McNeill and J. Raabe
SYNTHETIC METALS 161 (2012) 2516-2520
DOI: 10.1016/j.synthmet.2011.09.016

Sub-Micrometer Charge Modulation Microscopy of a High Mobility Polymeric n-Channel Field-Effect Transistor
C. Sciascia, N. Martino, T. Schüttfort, B. Watts, G. Grancini, M.R. Antognazza, M. Zavelani-Rossi, C.R. McNeill and M.Caironi
ADVANCED MATERIALS 23 (2011) 5086-5090
DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102410

Residual solvent content in conducting polymer-blend films mapped with scanning transmission X-ray microscopy
R. Meier, M. Schindler, P. Muller-Buschbaum and B. Watts
PHYSICAL REVIEW B 84 (2011) 174205
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.174205

Mapping of Domain Orientation and Molecular Order in Polycrystalline Semiconducting Polymer Films with Soft X-Ray Microscopy
B. Watts, T. Schüttfort and C.R. McNeill
ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS 21 (2011) 1122-1131
DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001918

Polymer Blend Solar Cells Based on a High-Mobility Naphthalenediimide-Based Polymer Acceptor: Device Physics, Photophysics and Morphology
J.R. Moore, S. Albert-Seifried, A. Rao, S. Massip, B. Watts, D.J. Morgan, R.H. Friend, C.R. McNeill and H. Sirringhaus
ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS 1 (2011) 230-240
DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000035

Calibrated NEXAFS spectra of common conjugated polymers
B. Watts, S. Swaraj, D. Nordlund, J. Lüning and H. Ade
JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 134 (2011) 24702
DOI: 10.1063/1.3506636

Aging induced changes on NEXAFS fingerprints in individual combustion particles
V. Zelenay, R. Mooser, T. Tritscher, A. Krepelova, M.F. Heringa, R. Chirico, A.S.H. Prevot, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, J. Dommen, B. Watts, J. Raabe, T. Huthwelker and M. Ammann
ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 11 (2011) 11777-11791
DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-11777-2011

Investigation of the Role of Nucleating Agents in MgO-SiO2-Al2O3-SiO2-TiO2 Glasses and Glass-Ceramics: A XANES Study at the Ti K- and L-2,L-3-Edges
L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, N. Menguy, G.S. Henderson, M. Guignard, N. Trcera and B. Watts
CRYSTAL GROWTH & DESIGN 11 (2011) 311-319
DOI: 10.1021/cg101318p

Simultaneous Surface and Bulk Imaging of Polymer Blends with X-ray Spectromicroscopy
B. Watts and C.R. McNeill
MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS 31 (2010) 1706-1712
DOI: 10.1002/marc.201000269

Nanomorphology of Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Thin Films Probed with Resonant Soft X-ray Scattering
S. Swaraj, C. Wang, H.P. Yan, B. Watts, L.N. Jan, C.R. McNeill and H. Ade
NANO LETTERS 10 (2010) 2863-2869
DOI: 10.1021/nl1009266

Structure of Phase-Separated Ferroelectric/Semiconducting Polymer Blends for Organic Non-volatile Memories
C.R. McNeill, K. Asadi, B. Watts, P.W.M. Blom and D.M. de Leeuw
SMALL 6 (2010) 508-512
DOI: 10.1002/smll.200901719

Higher Order Suppressor (HOS) for the PolLux Microspectroscope Beamline at the Swiss Light Source SLS
U. Frommherz, J. Raabe, B. Watts, R. Stefani and U. Ellenberger
SRI 2009: THE 10TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SYNCHROTRON RADIATION INSTRUMENTATION 1234 (2010) 429-432
DOI: 10.1063/1.3463232

A Quantitative Study of PCBM Diffusion during Annealing of P3HT: PCBM Blend Films
B. Watts, W.J. Belcher, L. Thomsen, H. Ade and P.C. Dastoor
MACROMOLECULES 42 (2009) 8392-8397
DOI: 10.1021/ma901444u

Evolution of Laterally Phase-Separated Polyfluorene Blend Morphology Studied by X-ray Spectromicroscopy
C.R. McNeill, B. Watts, L. Thomsen, W.J. Belcher, N.C. Greenham, P.C. Dastoor and H. Ade
MACROMOLECULES 42 (2009) 3347-3352
DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/19/42/424015

Role of Solvent Trapping Effects in Determining the Structure and Morphology of Ternary Blend Organic Devices
K.B. Burke, W.J. Belcher, L. Thomsen, B. Watts, C.R. McNeill, H. Ade and P.C. Dastoor
MACROMOLECULES 42 (2009) 3098-3103
DOI: 10.1021/ma802632y

Predeposition plasma nitridation process applied to Ge substrates to passivate interfaces between crystalline-Ge substrates and Hf-based high-K dielectrics
G. Lucovsky, J.P. Long, K.B. Chung, H. Seo, B. Watts, R. Vasic and M.D. Ulrich
JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B 27 (2009) 294-299
DOI: 10.1116/1.3072917

NEXAFS microscopy of polymeric materials: Successes and challenges encountered when characterizing organic devices
H. Ade, B. Watts, S. Swaraj, C.R. McNeill, L. Thomsen, W.J. Belcher and P.C. Dastoor
9TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON X-RAY MICROSCOPY 186 (2009) 12102
DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/186/1/012102

First differential phase contrast results from PolLux
J. Raabe, B. Watts, G. Tzvetkov, R.H. Fink and C. Quitmann
9TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON X-RAY MICROSCOPY 186 (2009) 12012
DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/186/1/012012

Soft X-Ray Beam Induced Current Technique
B. Watts, D. Queen, A.L.D. Kilcoyne, T. Tyliszczak, F. Hellman and H. Ade
9TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON X-RAY MICROSCOPY 186 (2009) 12023
DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/186/1/012023

Evolution of the nanomorphology of photovoltaic polyfluorene blends: sub-100 nm resolution with x-ray spectromicroscopy
C.R. McNeill, B. Watts, S. Swaraj, H. Ade, L. Thomsen, W.J. Belcher and P.C. Dastoor
NANOTECHNOLOGY 19 (2008) 424015
DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/19/42/424015

A simple method for determining linear polarization and energy calibration of focused soft X-ray beams
B. Watts and H. Ade
JOURNAL OF ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY AND RELATED PHENOMENA 162 (2008) 49-55
DOI: 10.1016/j.elspec.2007.08.008

Resonant soft x-ray reflectivity of organic thin films
C. Wang, T. Araki, B. Watts, S. Harton, T, Koga, S. Basu and H. Ade
JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY A 25 (2007) 575-586
DOI: 10.1116/1.2731352

X-ray microscopy of photovoltaic polyfluorene blends: Relating nanomorphology to device performance
C.R. McNeill, B. Watts, L. Thomsen, H. Ade, N.C. Greenham and P.C. Dastoor
MACROMOLECULES 40 (2007) 3263-3270
DOI: 10.1021/ma070132d

X-ray spectromicroscopy of polymer/fullerene composites: Quantitative chemical mapping
C.R. McNeill, B. Watts, L. Thomsen, W.J. Belcher, A.L.D. Kilcoyne, N.C. Greenham and P.C. Dastoor
SMALL 2 (2006) 1432-1435
DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600300

PMSE 472-Nanostructured polymer electrolytes: Decoupling ion conduction and mechanical properties
C.R. McNeill, B. Watts, L. Thomsen, P.C. Dastoor and N.C. Greenham
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY 232 (2006) 386-386


A NEXAFS orientation study of gamma-aminopropyltriethoxysilane on zinc oxide surfaces
L. Thomsen, B. Watts and P.C. Dastoor
SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS 38 (2006) 1139-1145
DOI: 10.1002/sia.2369

Nanoscale quantitative chemical mapping of conjugated polymer blends
C.R. McNeill, B. Watts, L. Thomsen, W.J. Belcher, N.C. Greenham and P.C. Dastoor
NANO LETTERS 6 (2006) 1202-1206
DOI: 10.1021/nl060583w

A simple polarimeter for quantifying synchrotron polarization
B. Watts, L. Thomsen and P.C. Dastoor
JOURNAL OF ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY AND RELATED PHENOMENA 151 (2006) 208-214
DOI: 10.1016/j.elspec.2005.12.003

Methods in carbon K-edge NEXAFS: Experiment and analysis
B. Watts, L. Thomsen and P.C. Dastoor
JOURNAL OF ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY AND RELATED PHENOMENA 151 (2006) 105-120
DOI: 10.1016/j.elspec.2005.11.006

Measuring the tilt angle of ODTMS self-assembled monolayers on Al oxide surfaces.
L. Thomsen, B. Watts, D.V. Cotton and P.C. Dastoor
SYNTHETIC METALS 154 (2005) 9-12
DOI: 10.1016/j.synthmet.2005.07.002

Towards fabrication of synthetic metal nanowires
D.V. Cotton, L. Thomsen, B. Watts and P.C. Dastoor
SYNTHETIC METALS 154 (2005) 33-36
DOI: 10.1016/j.synthmet.2005.07.009

Measurement of molecular order and orientation in nanoscale organic films
B. Watts, L. Thomsen and P.C. Dastoor
SYNTHETIC METALS 152 (2005) 21-24
DOI: 10.1016/j.synthmet.2005.07.099

Adsorption and orientation kinetics of self-assembled films of octadecyltrimethoxysilane on aluminium oxide surfaces
L. Thomsen, B. Watts, D.V. Cotton, J.S. Quinton and P.C. Dastoor
SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS 37 (2005) 472-477
DOI: 10.1002/sia.2037

Determining the angular admittance of a cylindrical mirror analyser
B. Watts, L. Thomsen and P.C. Dastoor
SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS 34 (2002) 782-785
DOI: 10.1002/sia.1410

Understanding the conformational dynamics of organosilanes: gamma-APS on zinc oxide surfaces
B. Watts, L. Thomsen, J.R. Fabien and P.C. Dastoor
LANGMUIR 18 (2002) 148-154
DOI: 10.1021/la011058+