FacilitiesThe following facilities are operated by NES:
DRAGON (Diverse purpose aerosol generation facility) is a multi purpose aerosol generation facility to provide carrier gas-aerosol flow to various experimental facilities. It has been used in connection with such facilities as CONGA, POSEIDON, ARTIST and VEFITA for investigation of aerosol and iodine transport for source term analysis in several international and national research programs. DRAGON combines the aerosol generation, steam and air/nitrogen supply, heating, heat removal, and aerosol measurement systems. It has a maximum operation pressure of 10 bar and temperature of 330°C. DRAGON can be used for the generation of a wide range of aerosols with different size distributions and compositions by several different aerosol generation methods: plasma torches, fluidized bed generators, two-fluid nozzles, atomizers, and dry powder feeders. In addition, different species of iodine may also be generated and measured. The aerosol measurement devices include, e.g., low-pressure impactors, optical particle counters, electrical low-pressure impactors, condensation nucleus counters, photometers, and filters.
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The hot laboratory (Hotlabor) facility is the single Swiss laboratory authorized by the safety authorities to handle large quantities of radioactive materials including commercial as well as experimental nuclear fuel.
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The experimental facility consists of an open GAs MIxing LOop (titled GAMILO) supplying a HOrizontal Mixing Experiment in a Rectangular channel (HOMER) having a cross section of 60x60 mm2 and a length of 94 cm with two parallel gas flows of differing densities and identical or different velocities in the range from 1 to 14 m/s. HOMER is used to study fundamental mixing phenomena in the presence of density differences between two gas streams. GAMILO is an open gas loop supplying two separated flow streams to the experimental test section; the streams may consist of pure nitrogen, pure helium, or a premixed mixture of both in one of the streams to adjust the density with respect to the nitrogen stream. An additional feature of GAMILO is that either gas flow may be redirected to the upper or lower channel of the test section, allowing for both stable and unstable configurations. In the conditioning section of HOMER both gas flows are initially separated and meet at the tip of a downstream splitter plate to form either the isokinetic mixing layer or the shear layer. The tip of the splitter plate and the subsequent mixing zone formed downstream are located in a measurement section in which Particle-Image-Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser-Induced-Fluorescence (LIF) measurement techniques are applied to measure velocity and concentration data close to the tip of the splitter plate and at varying downstream distances.
GAMILO/HOMER facility: set-up for the combined stereo-PIV and LIF measurements
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The LINX (Large scale Investigation of Natural circulation and miXing) facility is a medium scale thermal-hydraulic experimental facility that was originally designed for containment safety study, in particular passive safety systems based on natural circulation, mixing and condensation in presence of non-condensable gases. The LINX facility consists of a 9.42 m3 pressure vessel, a heat exchanger (heater/cooler) and various lines used for water and/or gas injection. The facility design pressure and temperature are 10 bar and 250°C, respectively. The facility is instrumented with more than 200 thermocouples, 40 sampling lines for gas concentration measurements and numerous optical accesses for visible and IR measurements. Optical probes, electromagnetic probes and Pitot tubes have also been implemented for some projects. In addition, state-of-the-art control system allows for reliable and safe operation of the facility. The LINX facility has been part of many international projects devoted to containment safety most of which under European Framework Programs. Currently, LINX is used for condensation/evaporation experiments in a joint project with IRSN and ENSI.
LINX facility: 3-D Rendering of the newly implemented components in LINX: the cooling loop system outside the vessel and the cooling plates set up inside the vessel
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PANDA is a large scale, multi-compartment thermal hydraulic facility suited for investigations related to the safety of current and advanced light water reactors. The facility is multi-purpose and the applications cover integral containment response tests, component tests, primary system tests and separate effect tests. Experimental investigations carried out in the PANDA facility are embedded in national and international projects, most of which under the auspices of EU and OECD and with the support of a large number of organizations worldwide, e.g. regulatory bodies, universities, national laboratories, electric utilities, and industries.
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The PRECISE facility is designed to study the reflux condensation phenomenon which occurs inside steam generator tubes of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) during design basis (DBA) and severe accidents. Reflux condensation is capable of removing residual decay heat from the reactor coolant system (RCS) thereby suppressing or, at least, delaying the core uncovery in a hypothetical loss of coolant accident (LOCA). A large number of studies concerning reflux condensation were done assuming no core damage conditions. In the PRECISE facility, we address severe accident scenarios where the reflux condensation process is influenced by the presence of noncondensable gases, such as hydrogen produced from oxidation of the fuel cladding.
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STIP (SINQ Target Irradiation Program) is using SINQ targets as an irradiation facility. Various miniature type specimens are irradiated in a real environment of a spallation target with high energy protons and spallation neutrons. The irradiation dose can reach about 15 dpa (in Fe) per year, accompanied with high production rate of helium (~800 appm/y) and hydrogen (~4000 appm/y). STIP has received continuous interest from spallation, fusion and ADS communities since the first irradiation experiment conducted in 1998-1999.
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The TRISTAN (Tube Rupture In Steam generator multi-phase flow investigations) is a versatile facility for the investigation of gas-water two-phase flow hydrodynamics. It is a rectangular steel channel of a square cross section of 0.5 x 0.5 m and an overall height of 6.2 m. Two Wire-Mesh Sensors (WMS) are used to characterize the interfacial structure of the two phase flow with high temporal (1 MHz) and spatial (3 mm) resolution. The facility is operated under ambient conditions.
TRISTAN was designed and constructed to characterize two-phase flow hydrodynamics in a steam generator of a pressurized water reactor under steam generator tube rupture conditions when the secondary side of the steam generator is filled with water. For this application, the facility was equipped with a tube bundle consisting of 221 stainless steel tubes. Tube breaks may be installed at different elevations to feed air or nitrogen into the main flow channel. The tube bundle may be removed and replaced with, e.g., a single tube, or any other internals depending on the application.
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VEFITA (Venting Filter Assessment) is a facility for the investigation of the Filtered containment venting systems (FCVS). VEFITA is a full-height, reduced diameter mock-up facility of a wet scrubber consisting of an inlet gas sparger assembly, flow conditioning elements, and a droplet separator. The facility can be operated at a high pressure up to 4.5 bar(a) with the inlet pressure of 10 bar(a). Steam, nitrogen and a mixture of the two can be used with flow rates up to 1200 kg/h. The desired test aerosols are generated in the DRAGON aerosol generation facility, and they are mixed with the steam/nitrogen flow before being fed into the test facility. Different aerosol compositions and size distributions may be used, including soluble and insoluble aerosols as well as monodisperse spherical test aerosols. Similarly, different species of iodine may be generated and fed into the facility along with the steam/nitrogen mixture. For the determination of the decontamination factor, the concentration of aerosols and iodine are determined at the test section inlet and outlet. VEFITA is used both in international and national projects for the investigation of thermal-hydraulic behaviour of FCVS, as well as aerosol and iodine retention in the FCVS.
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