My research focuses on development and application of energy-economic models for energy and climate change mitigation policies. I have expertise in scenario development, energy transition, clean mobility, energy policy, etc.
5232 Villigen PSI
Ramachandran Kannan is with the Energy Economic Group at the Paul Scherrer Institut since 2009. Kannan initiated the development of the TIMES family of models for Switzerland with an hourly temporal resolution. The Swiss TIMES Energy system Model (STEM) has evolved through many projects and it is a cutting edge analytical tool for Swiss energy transition.
Kannan has 20+ years of industrial and academic experiences from Switzerland, the UK, Germany, India, Singapore, Thailand, and a few other Asian countries. His current research focused on development and application of technology rich, cost optimization systems models (e.g. TIMES/MARKAL) for energy-economics and climate change mitigation policy analysis. He organizes stakeholder workshops for model data validation. He has 50+ publications to his credit and has expertise in energy conservation and management; life cycle costing; techno-economic analysis; and environmental life cycle assessment.
Prior to join PSI, Kannan was the core member of the UK energy system modeling team of the UK Energy Research Centre (UKERC) . He developed the UK MARKAL energy system models and contributed to the 2007 UK energy white paper. In 2005-06 and 2008, he was a team member of the study on the Economics of the Kyoto Protocol: A Cost-Benefit Analysis commissioned by the Government of Singapore, for which he developed the Singapore MARKAL-Macro energy system model. Earlier, Kannan was a Research Associate with the Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand, and coordinated the Asian-regional climate change project funded by the Swedish International Development Agency. Kannan performed comprehensive research on life cycle analysis of power generation technologies. In his early career, he worked for Vestas wind turbine manufacturing company in India, where he was marketing wind energy projects and performed techno-economic feasibility studies for many wind energy parks. Kannan began his career as an energy auditor and undertook number of energy audit projects in India. Later he developed a methodology for energy management practices in SME.
|Since 2009||Researcher||Energy Economics Group, PSI, Switzerland|
|2006- 2009||Research Fellow||Policy Studies Institute/King's College, London, UK|
|2000- 2005||Research Associate & Visiting Research Fellow||Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand|
|1995- 1998||Assistant Engineer||Vestas RRB India Ltd, India|
|1994||Technician||Integrated Rural Energy Program, India|
|1993||Scientific Assistant||Planters Energy Network, India|
- INTERCHARGE: Secure integration of the future e-mobility charging infrastructure with the electricity grid
- SHELTERED - Sustainable cHEmicaL Transport fuEls foR SwitzErlanD
- AEGIS - Advanced Geothermal Systems to Improve the Resilience of the Energy Supply of Switzerland
- ATELIER - AmsTErdam BiLbao cItizen drivEn smaRt cities
- SCCER-Mobility: Swiss Competence Centre for Energy Research - Efficient Technologies and Systems for Mobility
- DEEDS: DialoguE on European Decarbonisation Strategies
- SWIDEM: Swiss Industry: Price Elasticities and Demand Developments for Electricity and Gas
- ESI: Energy System Integration Platform
Completed PhD thesis
- Dr. Rajesh Pattupara (2016) - Long Term Evolution of the Swiss Electricity System under a European Electricity Market, ETH Zurich, http://dx.doi.org/10.3929/ethz-a-010635090 (supervisor)
- Dr. Michel Obrist (2023) Long-Term Energy and Emission Pathways for the Swiss Industry, ETH Zurich, https://doi.org/10.3929/ethz-b-000598438 (co-supervisor)
- Dr. Sandro Luh (2023) Decarbonizing Passenger Road Transportation in Switzerland - A Systemic energy and consumer focused perspective, ETH Zurich (supervisor)
|M.Eng. (Mechanical/Energy)||Nanyang Technological University, Singapore|
|M.Sc. (Appropriate Technology and Management)||Universität Flensburg, Germany|
|M.Sc. (Energy Sciences)||School of Energy, Madurai Kamaraj University, India|
|B.Sc. (Physics)||Madurai Kamaraj University, India|
- Project Management (2018)
- MARKAL and TIMES energy systems modeling
- Life cycle assessment (SimaPro LCA software) (2001)
- CEFE - Competency-based Economies through Formation of Enterprise GTZ, Germany (1999)
- ISO quality documentation system (1997)
- WAsP - Wind atlas analysis and application program by Riso, Denmark (1996)
Panos E, Kober T, Ramachandran K, Hirschberg S, Bauer C, Schildhauer T, et al.
Transformation of the Swiss energy system for a net-zero greenhouse gas emission society. Results from the joint activity scenarios & modelling
Zurich: ETH Zurich; 2021.
Kober T, Kannan R, Pietzcker R, Deane P, Fuso-Nerini F
Research and innovation needs for clean energy supply
sine loco: Dialogue on European Decarbonisation Strategies (DEEDS); 2020.
Kober T, Kannan R, Obrist M, Panos E, Heald S, Clements L, et al.
Swiss industry: price elasticities and demand developments for electricity and gas (SWIDEM)
Bern: Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE; 2020.
Velazquez A, Pietzcker R, Siskos P, Luh S, Kannan R
Research and innovation needs to decarbonise the transport sector
sine loco: Dialogue on European Decarbonisation Strategies (DEEDS); 2020.
Densing M, Kannan R, Panos E, Kober T
Long term role of Swiss hydropower from an energy systems and market perspective. Zukunftspotenzial der Schweizer Wasserkraft durch Synergien im Energiesystem und Markt Perspektiven
Villigen PSI, Switzerland: Paul Scherrer Institute; 2018.
Friedl M, Kober T, Ramachandran K, Mühlethaler J
Fokusstudie "Saisonale Flexibilisierung einer nachhaltigen Energieversorgung der Schweiz"
Rapperswil; Villigen PSI: Hochschule für Technik Rapperswil (HSR); Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI); 2018.
Panos E, Kannan R
Challenges and opportunities for the Swiss energy system in meeting stringent climate mitigation targets
In: Giannakidis G, Karlsson K, Labriet M, Ó Gallachóir B, eds. Limiting global warming to well below 2 °C: energy system modelling and policy development. Lecture notes in energy. Cham: Springer; 2018:155-172. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74424-7_10
Panos E, Kober T, Kannan R
Die Bedeutung von Flexibilitätsoptionen und Netzen für die langfristige Entwicklung des schweizer Elektrizitätssystems
In: 12. VDI-Fachtagung Optimierung in der Energiewirtschaft. Vol. 2303. VDI-Berichte. Düsseldorf: VDI Verlag GmbH; 2017:47-60.
Can the decentralized CHP generation provide the flexibility required to integrate intermittent RES in the electricity system?
Presented at: 67th Semi-annual ETSAP meeting; June 1-2, 2015; Abu Dhab.
Development and Application of Energy-Economic Models for Switzerland's Climate Change Mitigation Scenarios
Presented at: 2nd Asian Energy Modelling Workshop on Climate Change and Sustainable Development; July 23, 2015; Singapore.
Kannan R, Turton H, Panos E
Methodological significance of temporal granularity in energy-economic models - insights from the MARKAL/TIMES framework
In: Giannakidis G, Labriet M, Gallachóir BÓ, Tosato GC, eds. Informing energy and climate policies using energy systems models. Insights from scenario analysis increasing the evidence base. Lecture notes in energy. Cham: Springer; 2015:185-200. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16540-0_11
Maire S, Pattupara R, Ramachandran K, Vielle M, Vöhringer F
Electricity markets and trade in Switzerland and its neighbouring countries (ELECTRA). Building a coupled techno-economic modeling framework
Bern: Bundesamt für Energie BFE; 2015.
Kannan R, Turton H
Interplay between electricity and transport sectors - Integrating the Swiss car fleet and electricity system
Presented at: IAEE European Energy Conference; October 29-31, 2014; Rome, Italy.
Pattupara R, Kannan R
Exploring uncertainties in CCS - De-carbonization of the power sector and country-wise opportunities
Presented at: IAEE European Energy Conference; October 29-31, 2014; Rome, Italy.
Ramachandran K, Turton H
Switzerland energy transition scenarios - development and application of the Swiss TIMES energy system model (STEM)
Villigen PSI, Switzerland: Paul Scherrer Institut; 2014. PSI Bericht: 14-06.
Kannan R, Turton H
Documentation on the development of the Swiss TIMES electricity model (STEM-E)
Villigen PSI, Switzerland: Paul Scherrer Institut; 2011. PSI Bericht: 11-03.
Fuchs A, Demiray T, Evangelos P, Kannan R, Kober T, Bauer C, et al.
ISCHESS - integration of stochastic renewables in the Swiss electricity supply system
sine loco: sine nomine; 2016.
Journal publications (2002-2009)
Strachan, N., S. Pye and R. Kannan (2009). The Iterative Contribution and Relevance of Modelling to UK Energy Policy, Energy Policy 37 (3): 850-860. DOI:10.1016/j.enpol.2008.09.096
Kannan, R. and N. Strachan (2009). Modelling the UK residential energy sector under long-term decarbonisation scenarios: Comparison between energy systems and sectoral modelling approaches, Applied Energy 86 (4): 416-428. Doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.08.005
Strachan, N. and R. Kannan (2008). Hybrid Modelling of Long-Term Carbon Reduction Scenarios for the UK, Energy Economics 30 (6): 2947-2963. DOI:10.1016/j.eneco.2008.04.009
Kannan, R., K.C. Leong, R. Osman and H.K. Ho (2007). Life cycle energy, emissions and cost inventory of power generation technologies in Singapore, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11 (4): 702-715. DOI:10.1016/j.rser.2005.05.004
Kannan, R., K.C. Leong, R. Osman, H.K. Ho and C.P. Tso (2006). Life cycle assessment study of solar PV systems: An example of a 2.7 kWp distributed solar PV system in Singapore, Solar Energy 80 (5): 555-563. DOI:10.1016/j.solener.2005.04.008
Kannan, R., K.C. Leong, R. Osman, H.K. Ho and C.P. Tso (2005). Gas-fired combined cycle plant in Singapore: energy use, GWP and cost - a life cycle approach, Energy Conversion and Management 46 (13-14): 2145-2157. DOI:10.1016/j.enconman.2004.10.021
Kannan, R., C.P. Tso, R. Osman and H.K. Ho (2004). LCA-LCCA of oil-fired steam turbine power plant in Singapore, Energy Conversion and Management 45 (18-19): 3093-3107. DOI:10.1016/j.enconman.2004.01.005
Kannan, R. and W. Boie (2003). Energy management practices in SME - Case study of a bakery in Germany, Energy Conversion and Management 44 (6): 945-959. DOI:10.1016/S0196-8904(02)00079-1
Kumar, S., C. Visvanathan, R. Kannan and A.B. Herrera (2002). Networking to promote energy efficient and environmentally sound technologies in small and medium scale industries, International Journal of Global Energy Issues 17 (3): 171-188. DOI:10.1504/IJGEI.2002.000939
Technical reports and working papers
Friedl, M., Kober, T., Kannan, R., Mühlethaler, J. (2018). Fokusstudie «Saisonale Flexibilisierung einer nachhaltigen Energieversorgung der Schweiz», The report can be downloaded from Forum Energiespeicher Schweiz ,Bern
Boulouchos K, Cellina F, Ciari F, Cox B, Georges G, Hirschberg S, Hoppe M, Jonietz D, Kannan R, Kovacs N, Küng L, Michl T, Raubal M, Rudel R & Schenler W. (2017). Towards an Energy Efficient and Climate Compatible Future Swiss Transportation System, Download
Fuchs, A., Demiray, T., Panos E., Kannan, R., Kober, T., Bauer, C., Schenler, W., Burgherr, P., Hirschberg, S. (2017). ISCHESS - Integration of stochastic renewables in the Swiss electricity supply system, Final report of the Swiss Competence Center Energy and Mobility.
Vögelin P., Panos E., Buffat R., Becutti G., Kannan R., et al. (2016). System modelling for assessing the potential of decentralised biomass-CHP plants to stabilise the Swiss electricity network with increased fluctuating renewable generation, Final report of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy.
A. Shivakumar, P. Deane, B. Normark, A. Fauré, J. Gottschling, A. Dobbins, R. Pattupara, R. Kannan, et al. (2016). Business models for flexible production and storage, INSIGHT_E Policy Report 4, Download (3MB)
S. Maire, R. Pattupara, R. Kannan, M. Vielle, F. Vöhringer (2015). Electricity markets and trade in Switzerland and its neighbouring countries (ELECTRA); Building a coupled techno-economic modeling framework - Schlussbericht, Final Report to Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Bern, External Link, Download
R. Kannan and H. Turton (2014). Switzerland energy transition scenarios – Development and application of the Swiss TIMES Energy system Model (STEM), Final Report to Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Bern, External Link, Download
Kannan, R. and H. Turton (2012). The Swiss TIMES Electricity Model (STEM-E): Updates to the model input data and assumptions (Model Release 2), Download (0.2MB)
Kannan, R. and H. Turton (2012). Nuclear policy uncertainties in the evolution of the Swiss electricity system, NES Scientific Report 2011, ISSN 1663-7380
Kannan, R. and H. Turton (2012). Swiss Electricity Supply Options: A supplementary paper for PSI's Energie Spiegel Nr. 21, EEM Working paper, Paul Scherrer Institute, External Link
Kannan, R. and H. Turton (2011). Documentation on the Development of the Swiss TIMES Electricity Model (STEM-E), PSI Bericht 11-03, Download (1.7MB)Skea, J., P. Ekins, R. Kannan, M. Chaudry, A. Shakoor and Z. Wang (2009) A Resilient Energy system, in Making the transition to a secure and low-carbon energy system (synthesis report) Edt. J. Skea and P.Ekins, UK Energy Research Centre, London. External Link
Ekins, P., G. Anandarajah, N. Hughes, R. Kannan and N. Strachan (2009). Carbon Reduction Scenarios, in Making the transition to a secure and low-carbon energy system (synthesis report) Edt. J. Skea and P.Ekins, UK Energy Research Centre, London. External Link
Chaudry, M., A. Dougamas, P. Ekins, R. Kannan, A. Shakoor, J. Skea, G. Strbac and X. Wang (2009). A Resilient UK Energy System: Building in Resilience, UKERC Research Report. External Link
Kannan, R. (2009). Review and comparison of tools and scenarios adopted in Supergen 1 consortia, Working paper for the UK Sustainable Hydrogen Consortium.
Anandarajah, G., N. Strachan, P. Ekins, R. Kannan, N. Hughes (2008). Pathways to a Low Carbon Economy: Energy Systems Modelling, UK Energy Research Centre, London. External Link
Strachan N., and R. Kannan (2008). UK MARKAL stakeholder interactions. UK Energy Research Centre, London. External Link
Strachan N., N. Balta-Ozkan, R. Kannan, N. Hughes, K. McGeevor and D. Joffe (2007). State-of-the-art modelling of hydrogen infrastructure development for the UK: Geographical, temporal and technological optimisation modelling, Final Report to Department for Transport, London. External Link
Strachan N., R. Kannan and S. Pye (2008). Scenarios and Sensitivities on Long-term UK Carbon Reductions using the UK MARKAL and MARKAL-Macro Energy System Models, Research report, UK Energy Research Centre, London. External Link
Kannan R., N. Strachan, N. Balta-Ozkan and S. Pye (2007). UK MARKAL Model Documentation, UK Energy Research Centre, London.
Balta-Ozkan N., R. Kannan and N. Strachan (2007). Analysis of UKSHEC Hydrogen visions in the UK MARKAL energy system model, UKSHEC Social Science Working Paper No.32. External Link
Chang Y., H.K. Ho, K.C. Leong, R. Osman, K.C. Toh, Y. Chen and R. Kannan (2006). Final Report on the Economics of the Kyoto Protocol: A Cost-Benefit Analysis for Singapore, Ministry of Trade and Industry, Singapore
Full list of Publications
Kannan, R., Kober, T. (2018). Incorporating detailed technology data in bottom-up energy systems models: Insights from Swiss and international studies, Asian Energy Modelling Workshop, Singapore, 10-11 September 2018
Kober, T., Panos, E., Densing, M. Kannan, R. (2018). Zukünftige Rolle der Schweizer Wasserkraft im Gesamtenergiesystem, VSE Fachtagung “Zukunft der Wasserkraft", Olten, 27. June 2018, Program
Singh, A., Kannan, R., Kober, T., (2018). Long-term evolution of European electricity sector, The 37th International Energy Workshop, Gothenburg, Sweden, 19-21 June 2018,, Download Presentation
Kannan, R., Kober, T. (2018). Tradeoff between system embedded and dedicated energy storage in integrating large share of renewables, The 37th International Energy Workshop, Gothenburg, Sweden, 19-21 June 2018,, Download Presentation
Panos,E., Kober, T., Kannan, R. (2017). Die Bedeutung von Flexibilitaetsoptionen und Netzen fuer die langfristige Entwicklung des schweizer Electrizitaetssystems, in VDI-Berichte 2303, VDI Verlag GmbH - Duesseldorf 2017, Abstract
Panos, E., Kannan, R. (2017). Strategies for integration of variable renewable generation in the Swiss electricity system, IAEE 2017 European Conference, Vienna, Austria, Presentation, Abstract
Kannan R., Hirschberg S. (2016). Long term Swiss Mobility Energy Scenarios – An integrated energy systems approach, SCCER-Mobility Annual Conference 2016, Zürich, Switzerland, Poster
Panos E., Kannan R. (2016). Long-term national electricity and heat supply scenarios, CHPSWARM project communication event, ETH Zurich, Switzerland, Poster
Panos, E., Kannan, R. (2015). Can the decentralized CHP generation provide the flexibility required to integrate intermittent RES in the electricity system?, 67th Semi-Annual IEA-ETSAP meeting, Abu Dhabi, UAE, Presentation
Kannan, R., Turton, H. (2014). Transition to a secure and low carbon Swiss energy system, 66th Semi-Annual IEA-ETSAP meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark, Presentation
Kannan, R., Turton, H. (2014). Interplay between electricity and transport sectors -Integrating the Swiss car fleet and electricity system, IAEE European Energy Conference, Rome, Italy, Presentation
Pattupara, R., Kannan, R. (2014). Exploring uncertainties in CCS – De-carbonization of the power sector & country-wise opportunities, IAEE European Energy Conference, Rome, Italy, Presentation
Pattupara, R., R. Kannan and H. Turton (2014). Alternative low carbon electricity pathways under a European nuclear phase-out - Achievement of Climate goals, 53rd meeting of the EWGCFM, 2nd International Conference of RCEM, Chania, Greece, Presentation
Pattupara, R., R. Kannan and H. Turton (2013). Influence of long term electricity sector developments in Europe on the Swiss electricity system: Risks and opportunities for electricity trading, 63rd Semi-annual ETSAP meeting, International Energy Agency, Paris, France, Presentation
Weidmann, N., R. Kannan and H. Turton (2012). Potential impact of post Fukushima nuclear policy on the future role of CCS in climate mitigation scenarios in Switzerland, International Energy Workshop, Cape Town, South Africa, Presentation
Kannan, R. and H. Turton (2011). Cost of ad-hoc nuclear policy uncertainties in the evolution of the Swiss electricity system, International Energy Workshop, Stanford, United States, Presentation
Kannan, R. and H. Turton (2010). Can a TIMES model be substituted for an Economic Dispatch model?, ETSAP Workshop, Stockholm, Sweden, Presentation
Kannan, R. and H. Turton (2010). Experience from the development of a new Swiss TIMES Electricity Model, ETSAP Workshop, New Delhi, PresentationKannan, R. (2009). Approaches in modelling a resilient energy scenario in UK MARKAL Elastic Demand (MED) version, International Energy Workshop, Venice, Italy, 17-19 June.
Skea, J., M. Chaudry, R. Kannan and A. Shakoor (2009). UK Energy security: What do we know, and what should be done? Sussex Energy Group Seminar, DBEER conference centre, London, 27 January.
Strachan, N. and R. Kannan (2008). Iterative UK energy modelling and policy making: From the 2000 Royal Commission to the 2008 Climate Change Bill, IEA ETSAP annual meeting, Nice France, December.
Kannan, R. and N. Strachan (2008). Sensitivity analyses on power sector investment and generation in a Low carbon UK energy system, BIEE conference, Oxford, 24 -25 September.
Kannan, R. (2008). Role of electricity and hydrogen storage in low carbon energy system – Modelling in temporal MARKAL model, International Energy Workshop, Paris, 30 June - 4 July.
Strachan, N., R. Kannan and N. Hughes (2008). Key uncertainties in energy system transitions and resultant cost ranges in UK scenarios of long-term CO2 reductions, International Energy Workshop, Paris, 30 June - 4 July
Kannan, R. and N. Strachan (2007). Workshop on the UK MARKAL-Macro Model and the 2007 Energy White Paper. DTI conference centre, 21 June 2007.
Strachan, N. and R. Kannan (2007). Quantifying technological and economic implications of long term carbon reduction scenarios for the UK, 9th IAEE European Conference, Florence, June.
Kannan, R. and N. Strachan (2006). Incorporating Behavioural Responses within a Technology Optimization Energy Model, BIEE Conference, Oxford 20-21 September.
Strachan, N. and R. Kannan (2006). Modelling Long-term Carbon Abatement Scenarios with UK MARKAL, BIEE Conference, Oxford 20-21 September.
Kannan, R., C.P. Tso, R. Osman and H.K. Ho, (2003). Comparative life cycle cost, energy and environmental analysis of distributed power generation technologies in Singapore, International Conference on Building Systems and Facilities Management, 8-10 October, Singapore, pp. 159-166.
Kannan, R., C.P. Tso, R. Osman and H.K. Ho (2003). Life cycle energy use and GHG emission analysis in electricity generation from an oil fired power plant in Singapore, Solutions to Pollution, 28 September - 1 October, Christchurch, New Zealand, p. 93.
Kannan, R. (2002). Poor quality power supply in India and cost hidden in voltage stabilizers - Impact on national development, The first regional conference on Energy and Development, 29 September - 3 October, Bangkok, Thailand.
Kumar, S. and R. Kannan (2001). A Review of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling in South East Asia, The National Workshop on Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation - Awareness and Strategies, 16-17 December, Coimbatore, India, pp. 212-226.
Kannan, R. (2000). Promotion of Energy Conservation in Germany, Appropriate Technology Forum, 13, pp. 5-7.