Two types of charge order with distinct interplay with superconductivity in the kagome material CsV3Sb5

The kagome metals of the family AV3Sb5, featuring a unique structural motif, harbor an array of intriguing phenomena such as chiral charge order and superconductivity. CsV3Sb5 is of particular interest because it displays a double superconducting dome in the region of the temperature-pressure phase diagram where charge order is still present. However, the microscopic origin of such an unusual behavior remains an unsolved issue. Here, to address it, we combine high-pressure, low-temperature muon spin relaxation/rotation with first-principles calculations.

We observe a pressure-induced threefold enhancement of the superfluid density, which also displays a double-peak feature, similar to the superconducting critical temperature. This leads to three distinct regions in the phase diagram, each of which features distinct slopes of the linear relation between superfluid density and the critical temperature. These results are attributed to a possible evolution of the charge order pattern from the superimposed tri-hexagonal Star-of-David phase at low pressures (within the first dome) to the staggered tri-hexagonal phase at intermediate pressures (between the first and second domes). Our findings suggest a change in the nature of the charge-ordered state across the phase diagram of CsV3Sb5, with varying degrees of competition with superconductivity.