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X-ray Optics and Applications

The X-Ray Optics and Applications group of LMN works on various fields of research involving the control of x-rays with ultimate precision. We develop instrumentation for large scale facilities such as synchrotrons and x-ray free electron lasers (X-FELs), by applying nanolithography techniques. This includes x-ray diffractive optics such as Fresnel zone plate lenses for imaging and probing of matter on a micro- and nanometer scale. Our optics are used at many synchrotron beam lines worldwide and hold the resolution record in x-ray microscopy. For applications that do not require ultimate resolution, we pursue novel approaches to obtain very high diffraction efficiencies.

Interferometric imaging techniques using hard x-rays also rely on specialized micro-fabricated gratings. The possibility to use this technique not only with synchrotron radiation but also with incoherent x-rays from tube sources makes the technique interesting for commercial applications. The extreme sensitivity of grating interferometry also provides a powerful tool for x-ray optics metrology and wavefront sensing.

The development of a new generation of x-ray sources based on the x-ray free-electron laser (X-FEL) principle have triggered the development of specialized diffractive optics. In order to withstand the extreme power levels of X-FELs, we make Fresnel zone plates based on diamond substrates. Similar devices are made for applications such as spectral monitoring or beam splitting. The latter is used to build multiple split-and-delay lines for ultra-fast pump-probe experiments with unprecedented timing precision.

For the fabrication of these devices, the X-Ray Optics and Applications Group runs LMN’s high performance electron-beam lithography tool Vistec EBPG 5000PlusES, that is also used by many other internal and external research groups.

Highlights 2016

September 2016:
Mikako Makita won the Best Poster Award
of the Micro- and Nanoengineering Conference,
Vienna, Austria, September 19 - 23, 2016, for her contribution:
Diamond diffraction gratings for experiments with intense hard x-rays

June 2016:
L. Ahad, I. Vartiainen, T. Setälä, A.T. Friberg, C. David, M. Makita, and J. Turunen
On spectral and temporal coherence of X-ray free-electron laser beams
Optics Express 24 (2016) p. 13081-13090 pdf

May 2016:
P. Roedig, R. Duman, J. Sanchez-Weatherby, I. Vartiainen, A. Burkhardt, M. Warmer, C. David, A. Wagner, and A. Meents
Room-temperature macromolecular crystallography using a micro-patterned silicon chip with minimal background scattering
Journal of Applied Crystallography 49 (2016) p. 968-975 pdf

April 2016:
Y. Kayser, S. Rutishauser, T. Katayama, T. Kameshima, H. Ohashi, U. Flechsig, M. Yabashi, and C. David
Shot-to-shot diagnostic of the longitudinal photon source position at SPring-8 Angstrom
Compact Free Electron Laser by means of X-ray grating interferometry
Optics Letters 41 (2016) p. 733-736 pdf

March 2016:
T. Katayama, S. Owada, T. Togashi, K. Ogawa, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, A. Eronen, C. David, T. Sato, K. Nakajima, Y. Joti, H. Yumoto, H. Ohashi, and M. Yabashi
A Beam Branching Method for Advanced Single-shot Characterization of Hard X-ray Free-electron Lasers
Structural Dynamics 3 (2016) p. 034301-14 pdf

February 2016:
I. Vartiainen, I. Mohacsi, K. Stachnik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. David, and A. Meents
Zernike X-ray Ptychography
Optics Letters 41 (2016) p. 721-724 pdf

January 2016:
I. Mohacsi, I. Vartiainen, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, V.A. Guzenko, E. Müller,
C.M. Kewish, A. Somogyi and C. David
Fabrication and characterization of high efficiency double-sided blazed X-ray optics
Optics Letters 41 (2016) p. 281-284 pdf


For references see: List of Publications

Research Topics

Diffractive X-ray Lenses
    • Electroplated Zone Plates and Beam Shapers
    • Ultra-high Resolution Zone Plates
    • Double-Sided Zone Plates
    • Blazed X-ray Optics
    • Zernike X-ray Phase Contrast Microscopy

Grating-based X-ray Interferometry
    • Differential Phase Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging
    • Metrology Applications at Synchrotrons and XFELs
    • Grating Fabrication

Diamond X-ray Optics for XFEL Experiments
    • Diamond Zone Plates for XFELs
    • Beam Splitter Gratings for Spectral Monitoring
    • Ultra-Fast Pump-Probe Experiments