Dr. Christopher Robert Hoyle

photo of Christopher Robert Hoyle Scientist
Smog Chamber Group

Paul Scherrer Institute
OFLA/104
5232 Villigen – PSI
Switzerland

Telephone: +41 56 310 5317
E-mail: christopher.hoyle@psi.ch





Current research activities

Atmospheric aerosol particles and their interactions with solar radiation and with clouds constitute one of the largest remaining uncertainties in our understanding of the earth’s climate. These particles are also one of the major factors impacting urban air quality, leading to increased mortality in polluted areas.

My current research involves the investigation of the chemistry which leads to the formation and growth of aerosol particles in the atmosphere, with a particular focus on the chemistry occurring in the particles, or within cloud droplets. A thorough understanding of these processes is a prerequisite for developing effective mitigation measures, aimed at reducing the atmospheric particulate loading, and improving air quality in cities.

At the PSI, I develop numerical models of the chemical reactions involved in aerosol formation and growth, based on laboratory experiments performed in our smog chambers. I also lead the aqueous phase chemistry working group for the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets (CLOUD) experiments performed at CERN, where our work involves observing and modelling the role of aqueous phase chemistry and intra-particle reactions in determining aerosol growth and composition under both sub and supersaturated conditions.

CV

Education and Training

May 2006 Doctor of Sciences (Dr. sc. ETH Zurich)
2002 – 2005 PhD thesis "Three Dimensional Chemical Transport Model Study of Ozone and Related Gases 1960-2000"
1997 – 2000 Honours degree in physics, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

Work Experience

Since Jan 2012 Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute – Scientist
Dec 2011 – Dec 2012 Avaloq AG – Business analyst and software engineer (tax related banking software)
Sept 2011 – Dec 2011 Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute – Postdoc
Feb 2009 – Aug 2011 Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH – Postdoc
Dec 2005 – Feb 2009 University of Oslo – Research Scientist

Memberships and Professional Activities

Editor for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Swiss correspondent for the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS)
Member of the Swiss Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

Publications



Observations of fluorescent aerosol–cloud interactions in the free troposphere at the High-Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch.
Crawford, I., G. Lloyd, E. Herrmann, C. R. Hoyle, K. N. Bower, P. J. Connolly, M. J. Flynn, P. H. Kaye, T. W. Choularton, and M. W. Gallagher, 2016
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2273-2284.
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/2273/2016/

Enhanced extinction of visible radiation due to hydrated aerosols in mist and fog.
Elias, T., J.-C. Dupont, E. Hammer, C. R. Hoyle, M. Haeffelin, F. Burnet, and D. Jolivet, 2015
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15, 6605-6623.
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/15/6605/2015/acp-15-6605-2015.pdf

Arctic stratospheric dehydration - Part 2: Microphysical modeling.
Engel, I., B. P. Luo, S. M. Khaykin, F. G. Wienhold, H. Voemel, R. Kivi, C. R. Hoyle, J.-U. Grooss, M. C. Pitts, and T. Peter, 2014
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 3231-3246.
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/3231/2014/acp-14-3231-2014.pdf

Heterogeneous formation of polar stratospheric clouds - Part 2: Nucleation of ice on synoptic scales.
Engel, I., B. P. Luo, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, C. R. Hoyle, J.-U. Grooss, A. Doernbrack, and T. Peter, 2013
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13, 10769-10785.
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/10769/2013/acp-13-10769-2013.pdf

Modeling the ascent of sounding balloons: derivation of the vertical air motion.
Gallice, A., F. G. Wienhold, C. R. Hoyle, F. Immler, and T. Peter, 2011
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 4, 2235-2253.
http://www.atmos-meas-tech.net/4/2235/2011/amt-4-2235-2011.pdf

Polarimetric radar and in situ observations of riming and snowfall microphysics during CLACE 2014.
Grazioli, J., G. Lloyd, L. Panziera, C. R. Hoyle, P. J. Connolly, J. Henneberger, and A. Berne, 2015
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15, 13787-13802.
://WOS:000367189600031 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/15/13787/2015/acp-15-13787-2015.pdf

Nitric acid trihydrate nucleation and denitrification in the Arctic stratosphere.
Grooss, J.-U., I. Engel, S. Borrmann, W. Frey, G. Guenther, C. R. Hoyle, R. Kivi, B. P. Luo, S. Molleker, T. Peter, M. C. Pitts, H. Schlager, G. Stiller, H. Voemel, K. A. Walker, and R. Mueller, 2014
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 1055-1073.
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/1055/2014/acp-14-1055-2014.pdf

Investigation of the effective peak supersaturation for liquid-phase clouds at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland (3580 m a.s.l.).
Hammer, E., N. Bukowiecki, M. Gysel, Z. Juranyi, C. R. Hoyle, R. Vogt, U. Baltensperger, and E. Weingartner, 2014
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 1123-1139.
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/1123/2014/acp-14-1123-2014.pdf

Sensitivity estimations for cloud droplet formation in the vicinity of the high-alpine research station Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.).
Hammer, E., N. Bukowiecki, B. P. Luo, U. Lohmann, C. Marcolli, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, and C. R. Hoyle, 2015
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15, 10309-10323.
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/15/10309/2015/acp-15-10309-2015.pdf

Size-dependent particle activation properties in fog during the ParisFog 2012/13 field campaign.
Hammer, E., M. Gysel, G. C. Roberts, T. Elias, J. Hofer, C. R. Hoyle, N. Bukowiecki, J.-C. Dupont, F. Burnet, U. Baltensperger, and E. Weingartner, 2014
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 10517-10533.
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/10517/2014/acp-14-10517-2014.pdf

Secondary organic aerosol in the global aerosol - chemical transport model Oslo CTM2.
HOYLE, C., T. BERNTSEN, G. MYHRE, and e. al., 2007
ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 7, 5675-5694.


A review of the anthropogenic influence on biogenic secondary organic aerosol.
Hoyle, C., M. Boy, N. Donahue, J. Fry, M. Glasius, A. Guenther, A. Hallar, K. Hartz, M. Petters, T. Petaja, T. Rosenoern, and A. Sullivan, 2011
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 321-343.
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/321/2011/acp-11-321-2011.pdf

The origin of high ice crystal number densities in cirrus clouds.
HOYLE, C., B. LUO, and T. PETER, 2005
JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 62, 2568-2579.


Anthropogenic influence on SOA and the resulting radiative forcing.
Hoyle, C., G. Myhre, T. Berntsen, and I. Isaksen, 2009
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9, 2715-2728.


Present-day contribution of anthropogenic emissions from China to the global burden and radiative forcing of aerosol and ozone.
Hoyle, C., G. Myhre, and I. Isaksen, 2009
Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 61, 618-624.
http://www.tellusb.net/index.php/tellusb/article/download/16859/18817

Heterogeneous formation of polar stratospheric clouds - Part 1: Nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT).
Hoyle, C. R., I. Engel, B. P. Luo, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, J.-U. Grooss, and T. Peter, 2013
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13, 9577-9595.
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/9577/2013/acp-13-9577-2013.pdf

Heterogeneous Formation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds - Nucleation of Nitric Acid Trihydrate (NAT) in the Arctic Stratosphere.
Hoyle, C. R., I. Engel, B. P. Luo, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, J.-U. Grooss, T. Peter, P. DeMott, and C. ODowd, 2013
Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols, 1527, 980-983.
http://scitation.aip.org/docserver/fulltext/aip/proceeding/aipcp/1527/10.1063/1.4803438/1.4803438.pdf?expires=1460640012&id=id&accname=2085902&checksum=29945E7307B566140381B9BBA192EFA7

Aqueous phase oxidation of sulphur dioxide by ozone in cloud droplets.
Hoyle, C. R., C. Fuchs, E. Jaervinen, H. Saathoff, A. Dias, I. El Haddad, M. Gysel, S. C. Coburn, J. Troestl, A.-K. Bernhammer, F. Bianchi, M. Breitenlechner, J. C. Corbin, J. Craven, N. M. Donahue, J. Duplissy, S. Ehrhart, C. Frege, H. Gordon, N. Hoeppel, M. Heinritzi, T. B. Kristensen, U. Molteni, L. Nichman, T. Pinterich, A. S. H. Prevot, M. Simon, J. G. Slowik, G. Steiner, A. Tome, A. L. Vogel, R. Volkamer, A. C. Wagner, R. Wagner, A. S. Wexler, C. Williamson, P. M. Winkler, C. Yan, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, J. Curtius, M. W. Gallagher, R. C. Flagan, A. Hansel, J. Kirkby, M. Kulmala, O. Moehler, F. Stratmann, D. R. Worsnop, and U. Baltensperger, 2016
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16, 1693-1712.
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/1693/2016/acp-16-1693-2016.pdf

Representation of tropical deep convection in atmospheric models - Part 2: Tracer transport.
Hoyle, C. R., V. Marecal, M. R. Russo, G. Allen, J. Arteta, C. Chemel, M. P. Chipperfield, F. D'Amato, O. Dessens, W. Feng, J. F. Hamilton, N. R. P. Harris, J. S. Hosking, A. C. Lewis, O. Morgenstern, T. Peter, J. A. Pyle, T. Reddmann, N. A. D. Richards, P. J. Telford, W. Tian, S. Viciani, A. Volz-Thomas, O. Wild, X. Yang, and G. Zeng, 2011
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 8103-8131.
://WOS:000293826500042 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/8103/2011/acp-11-8103-2011.pdf

Ice nucleation properties of volcanic ash from Eyjafjallajokull.
Hoyle, C. R., V. Pinti, A. Welti, B. Zobrist, C. Marcolli, B. Luo, A. Hoeskuldsson, H. B. Mattsson, O. Stetzer, T. Thorsteinsson, G. Larsen, and T. Peter, 2011
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 9911-9926.
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/9911/2011/acp-11-9911-2011.pdf

Chemical and physical influences on aerosol activation in liquid clouds: a study based on observations from the Jungfraujoch, Switzerland.
Hoyle, C. R., C. S. Webster, H. E. Rieder, A. Nenes, E. Hammer, E. Herrmann, M. Gysel, N. Bukowiecki, E. Weingartner, M. Steinbacher, and U. Baltensperger, 2016
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4043-4061.
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/4043/2016/

Observation of viscosity transition in α-pinene secondary organic aerosol.
Järvinen, E., K. Ignatius, L. Nichman, T. B. Kristensen, C. Fuchs, C. R. Hoyle, N. Höppel, J. C. Corbin, J. Craven, J. Duplissy, S. Ehrhart, I. El Haddad, C. Frege, H. Gordon, T. Jokinen, P. Kallinger, J. Kirkby, A. Kiselev, K. H. Naumann, T. Petäjä, T. Pinterich, A. S. H. Prevot, H. Saathoff, T. Schiebel, K. Sengupta, M. Simon, J. G. Slowik, J. Tröstl, A. Virtanen, P. Vochezer, S. Vogt, A. C. Wagner, R. Wagner, C. Williamson, P. M. Winkler, C. Yan, U. Baltensperger, N. M. Donahue, R. C. Flagan, M. Gallagher, A. Hansel, M. Kulmala, F. Stratmann, D. R. Worsnop, O. Möhler, T. Leisner, and M. Schnaiter, 2016
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4423-4438.
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/4423/2016/

An assessment of the statistical significance of the total ozone changes simulated with global chemical transport model MEZON.
KAROL, I., A. KISELEV, V. ZUBOV, and e. al., 2004
GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 31, -.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1029/2004GL020536/asset/grl18617.pdf?v=1&t=in0au1n7&s=c0fa283dba67cb7998ca27fe080a68f21323ad58

Overview of the biosphere-aerosol-cloud-climate interactions (BACCI) studies.
Kulmala, M., V. Kerminen, A. Laaksonen, I. Riipinen, M. Sipila, T. Ruuskanen, L. Sogacheva, P. Hari, J. Back, K. Lehtinen, Y. Viisanen, M. Bilde, B. Svenningsson, M. Lazaridis, K. Torseth, P. Tunved, E. Nilsson, S. Pryor, L. Sorensen, U. Horrak, P. Winkler, E. Swietlicki, M. Riekkola, R. Krejci, C. Hoyle, O. Hov, G. Myhre, and H. Hansson, 2008
Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 60, 300-317.
http://www.tellusb.net/index.php/tellusb/article/download/16925/18883

Modelling of chemical and physical aerosol properties during the ADRIEX aerosol campaign.
Myhre, G., T. Berglen, C. Hoyle, S. Christopher, H. Coe, J. Crosier, P. Formenti, J. Haywood, M. Johnsrud, T. Jones, N. Loeb, S. Osborne, and L. Remer, 2009
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 135, 53-66.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1002/qj.350/asset/350_ftp.pdf?v=1&t=in0atx9w&s=5cbf940b64f127e0bf46d55342e545d4b51a9028

Modelled radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect with multi-observation evaluation.
Myhre, G., T. Berglen, M. Johnsrud, C. Hoyle, T. Berntsen, S. Christopher, D. Fahey, I. Isaksen, T. Jones, R. Kahn, N. Loeb, P. Quinn, L. Remer, J. Schwarz, and K. Yttri, 2009
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9, 1365-1392.


Modeling of the solar radiative impact of biomass burning aerosols during the Dust and Biomass-burning Experiment (DABEX).
Myhre, G., C. Hoyle, T. Berglen, B. Johnson, and J. Haywood, 2008
Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 113, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1029/2008JD009857/asset/jgrd14716.pdf?v=1&t=in0au5qx&s=2147552c5c701ae0bb6ba0b3c8738eb39d26c636

Phase transition observations and discrimination of small cloud particles by light polarization in expansion chamber experiments.
Nichman, L., C. Fuchs, E. Järvinen, K. Ignatius, N. F. Höppel, A. Dias, M. Heinritzi, M. Simon, J. Tröstl, A. C. Wagner, R. Wagner, C. Williamson, C. Yan, P. J. Connolly, J. R. Dorsey, J. Duplissy, S. Ehrhart, C. Frege, H. Gordon, C. R. Hoyle, T. B. Kristensen, G. Steiner, N. McPherson Donahue, R. Flagan, M. W. Gallagher, J. Kirkby, O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, M. Schnaiter, F. Stratmann, and A. Tomé, 2016
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3651-3664.
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/3651/2016/

Ice nucleation efficiency of clay minerals in the immersion mode.
Pinti, V., C. Marcolli, B. Zobrist, C. R. Hoyle, and T. Peter, 2012
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 5859-5878.
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/5859/2012/acp-12-5859-2012.pdf

Representation of tropical deep convection in atmospheric models - Part 1: Meteorology and comparison with satellite observations.
Russo, M. R., V. Marecal, C. R. Hoyle, J. Arteta, C. Chemel, M. P. Chipperfield, O. Dessens, W. Feng, J. S. Hosking, P. J. Telford, O. Wild, X. Yang, and J. A. Pyle, 2011
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 2765-2786.
://000288982300021 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/2765/2011/acp-11-2765-2011.pdf

Technical Note: Chemistry-climate model SOCOL: version 2.0 with improved transport and chemistry/microphysics schemes.
Schraner, M., E. Rozanov, C. Poberaj, P. Kenzelmann, A. Fischer, V. Zubov, B. Luo, C. Hoyle, T. Egorova, S. Fueglistaler, S. Bronnimann, W. Schmutz, and T. Peter, 2008
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 8, 5957-5974.


Anthropogenic radiative forcing time series from pre-industrial times until 2010.
Skeie, R. B., T. K. Berntsen, G. Myhre, K. Tanaka, M. M. Kvalevag, and C. R. Hoyle, 2011
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 11827-11857.
://WOS:000298134200034 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/11827/2011/acp-11-11827-2011.pdf

The HNO(3) forming branch of the HO(2) + NO reaction: pre-industrial-to-present trends in atmospheric species and radiative forcings.
Sovde, O. A., C. R. Hoyle, G. Myhre, and I. S. A. Isaksen, 2011
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 8929-8943.
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/8929/2011/acp-11-8929-2011.pdf

Climate and chemistry effects of a regional scale nuclear conflict.
Stenke, A., C. R. Hoyle, B. Luo, E. Rozanov, J. Groebner, L. Maag, S. Broennimann, and T. Peter, 2013
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13, 9713-9729.
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/9713/2013/acp-13-9713-2013.pdf

The AeroCom evaluation and intercomparison of organic aerosol in global models.
Tsigaridis, K., N. Daskalakis, M. Kanakidou, P. J. Adams, P. Artaxo, R. Bahadur, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, N. Bellouin, A. Benedetti, T. Bergman, T. K. Berntsen, J. P. Beukes, H. Bian, K. S. Carslaw, M. Chin, G. Curci, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, S. J. Ghan, S. L. Gong, A. Hodzic, C. R. Hoyle, T. Iversen, S. Jathar, J. L. Jimenez, J. W. Kaiser, A. Kirkevag, D. Koch, H. Kokkola, Y. H. Lee, G. Lin, X. Liu, G. Luo, X. Ma, G. W. Mann, N. Mihalopoulos, J.-J. Morcrette, J.-F. Mueller, G. Myhre, S. Myriokefalitakis, N. L. Ng, D. O'Donnell, J. E. Penner, L. Pozzoli, K. J. Pringle, L. M. Russell, M. Schulz, J. Sciare, O. Seland, D. T. Shindell, S. Sillman, R. B. Skeie, D. Spracklen, T. Stavrakou, S. D. Steenrod, T. Takemura, P. Tiitta, S. Tilmes, H. Tost, T. van Noije, P. G. van Zyl, K. von Salzen, F. Yu, Z. Wang, R. A. Zaveri, H. Zhang, K. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and X. Zhang, 2014
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 10845-10895.
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/10845/2014/acp-14-10845-2014.pdf

Reconciliation of essential process parameters for an enhanced predictability of Arctic stratospheric ozone loss and its climate interactions (RECONCILE): activities and results.
von Hobe, M., S. Bekki, S. Borrmann, F. Cairo, F. D'Amato, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Doernbrack, A. Ebersoldt, M. Ebert, C. Emde, I. Engel, M. Ern, W. Frey, S. Genco, S. Griessbach, J.-U. Grooss, T. Gulde, G. Guenther, E. Hoesen, L. Hoffmann, V. Homonnai, C. R. Hoyle, I. S. A. Isaksen, D. R. Jackson, I. M. Janosi, R. L. Jones, K. Kandler, C. Kalicinsky, A. Keil, S. M. Khaykin, F. Khosrawi, R. Kivi, J. Kuttippurath, J. C. Laube, F. Lefevre, R. Lehmann, S. Ludmann, B. P. Luo, M. Marchand, J. Meyer, V. Mitev, S. Molleker, R. Mueller, H. Oelhaf, F. Olschewski, Y. Orsolini, T. Peter, K. Pfeilsticker, C. Piesch, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, F. D. Pope, F. Ravegnani, M. Rex, M. Riese, T. Roeckmann, B. Rognerud, A. Roiger, C. Rolf, M. L. Santee, M. Scheibe, C. Schiller, H. Schlager, M. S. de Cumis, N. Sitnikov, O. A. Sovde, R. Spang, N. Spelten, F. Stordal, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, A. Ulanovski, J. Ungermann, S. Viciani, C. M. Volk, M. vom Scheidt, P. von der Gathen, K. Walker, T. Wegner, R. Weigel, S. Weinbruch, G. Wetzel, F. G. Wienhold, I. Wohltmann, W. Woiwode, I. A. K. Young, V. Yushkov, B. Zobrist, and F. Stroh, 2013
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13, 9233-9268.
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/9233/2013/acp-13-9233-2013.pdf