Dr. Julia Yvonne Schmale

Group Head Molecular Cluster and Particle Processes (MCPP)

Paul Scherrer Institute
Forschungsstrasse 111
5232 Villigen PSI

  • Baccarini A, Karlsson L, Dommen J, Duplessis P, Vüllers J, Brooks IM, et al.
    Frequent new particle formation over the high Arctic pack ice by enhanced iodine emissions
    Nature Communications. 2020; 11(1): 4924 (11 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18551-0
  • Efraim A, Rosenfeld D, Schmale J, Zhu Y
    Satellite retrieval of cloud condensation nuclei concentrations in marine stratocumulus by using clouds as CCN chambers
    Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres. 2020; 125(16): e2020JD032409 (11 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JD032409
  • Landwehr S, Thurnherr I, Cassar N, Gysel-Beer M, Schmale J
    Using global reanalysis data to quantify and correct airflow distortion bias in shipborne wind speed measurements
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. 2020; 13(6): 3487-3506. https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-13-3487-2020
  • Lee CP, Riva M, Wang D, Tomaz S, Li D, Perrier S, et al.
    Online aerosol chemical characterization by extractive electrospray ionization-ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (EESI-Orbitrap)
    Environmental Science and Technology. 2020; 54(7): 3871-3880. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b07090
  • Motos G, Corbin JC, Schmale J, Modini RL, Bertò M, Kupiszewski P, et al.
    Black carbon aerosols in the lower free troposphere are heavily coated in summer but largely uncoated in winter at Jungfraujoch in the Swiss Alps
    Geophysical Research Letters. 2020; 47(14): e2020GL088011 (10 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL088011
  • Petäjä T, Duplissy E-M, Tabakova K, Schmale J, Altstädter B, Ancellet G, et al.
    Overview: integrative and comprehensive understanding on polar environments (iCUPE) - concept and initial results
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2020; 20(14): 8551-8592. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-8551-2020
  • Regayre LA, Schmale J, Johnson JS, Tatzelt C, Baccarini A, Henning S, et al.
    The value of remote marine aerosol measurements for constraining radiative forcing uncertainty
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2020; 20(16): 10063-10072. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-10063-2020
  • Thurnherr I, Kozachek A, Graf P, Weng Y, Bolshiyanov D, Landwehr S, et al.
    Meridional and vertical variations of the water vapour isotopic composition in the marine boundary layer over the Atlantic and Southern Ocean
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2020; 20(9): 5811-5835. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-5811-2020
  • Fanourgakis GS, Kanakidou M, Nenes A, Bauer SE, Bergman T, Carslaw KS, et al.
    Evaluation of global simulations of aerosol particle and cloud condensation nuclei number, with implications for cloud droplet formation
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2019; 19(13): 8591-8617. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-8591-2019
  • Hartmann M, Blunier T, Brügger SO, Schmale J, Schwikowski M, Vogel A, et al.
    Variation of ice nucleating particles in the European Arctic over the last centuries
    Geophysical Research Letters. 2019; 46(7): 4007-4016. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL082311
  • Landwehr S, Schmale J, Walton D
    Connecting the Southern Ocean with clouds. ACE-DATA/Antarctic sea-atmosphere interactions data (ASAID) workshop; 5-6 November 2018, Lausanne, Switzerland
    EOS. 2019:(4 pp.).
  • Motos G, Schmale J, Corbin JC, Modini RL, Karlen N, Bertò M, et al.
    Cloud droplet activation properties and scavenged fraction of black carbon in liquid-phase clouds at the high-alpine research station Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.)
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2019; 19(6): 3833-3855. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-3833-2019
  • Motos G, Schmale J, Corbin JC, Zanatta M, Baltensperger U, Gysel-Beer M
    Droplet activation behaviour of atmospheric black carbon particles in fog as a function of their size and mixing state
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2019; 19(4): 2183-2207. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-2183-2019
  • Schmale J, Baccarini A, Thurnherr I, Henning S, Efraim A, Regayre L, et al.
    Overview of the Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition: study of preindustrial-like aerosols and their climate effects (ACE-SPACE)
    Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 2019; 100: 2260-2283. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0187.1
  • Thomas JL, Stutz J, Frey MM, Bartels-Rausch T, Altieri K, Baladima F, et al.
    Fostering multidisciplinary research on interactions between chemistry, biology, and physics within the coupled cryosphere-atmosphere system
    Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene. 2019; 7(1): 58 (16 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.396
  • Zhang Y, Kang S, Gao T, Schmale J, Liu Y, Zhang W, et al.
    Dissolved organic carbon in snow cover of the Chinese Altai Mountains, Central Asia: concentrations, sources and light-absorption properties
    Science of the Total Environment. 2019; 647: 1385-1397. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.417
  • Kutzner RD, von Schneidemesser E, Kuik F, Quedenau J, Weatherhead EC, Schmale J
    Long-term monitoring of black carbon across Germany
    Atmospheric Environment. 2018; 185: 41-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.04.039
  • Schmale J, Arnold SR, Law KS, Thorp T, Anenberg S, Simpson WR, et al.
    Local Arctic Air pollution: a neglected but serious problem
    Earth's Future. 2018; 6(10): 1385-1412. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018EF000952
  • Schmale J, Henning S, Decesari S, Henzing B, Keskinen H, Sellegri K, et al.
    Long-term cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, particle number size distribution and chemical composition measurements at regionally representative observatories
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2018; 18(4): 2853-2881. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-2853-2018
  • Reddington CL, Carslaw KS, Stier P, Schutgens N, Coe H, Liu D, et al.
    The Global Aerosol Synthesis and Science Project (GASSP). Measurements and modeling to reduce uncertainty
    Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 2017; 98(9): 1857-1877. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00317.1
  • Schmale J, Henning S, Henzing B, Keskinen H, Sellegri K, Ovadnevaite J, et al.
    Collocated observations of cloud condensation nuclei, particle size distributions, and chemical composition
    Scientific Data. 2017; 4: 170003 (26 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2017.3
  • Schmale J, Flanner M, Kang S, Sprenger M, Zhang Q, Guo J, et al.
    Modulation of snow reflectance and snowmelt from Central Asian glaciers by anthropogenic black carbon
    Scientific Reports. 2017; 7: 40501 (10 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1038/srep40501
  • Schmale J
    Setting the aerosol baseline - an Antarctic opportunity
    Antarctic Science. 2017; 29(4): 297. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954102017000232
  • Zhang Y, Kang S, Cong Z, Schmale J, Sprenger M, Li C, et al.
    Light-absorbing impurities enhance glacier albedo reduction in the southeastern Tibetan plateau
    Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres. 2017; 122(13): 6915-6933. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JD026397
  • von Schneidemesser E, Kutzner RD, Schmale J
    A survey on the perceived need and value of decision-support tools for joint mitigation of air pollution and climate change in cities
    Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene. 2017; 5: 68 (14 pp.). https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.126
  • Melamed ML, Schmale J, von Schneidemesser E
    Sustainable policy—key considerations for air quality and climate change
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. 2016; 23: 85-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2016.12.003
  • Riddick SN, Blackall TD, Dragosits U, Daunt F, Newell M, Braban CF, et al.
    Measurement of ammonia emissions from temperate and sub-polar seabird colonies
    Atmospheric Environment. 2016; 134: 40-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.03.016
  • Schmale J
    Short-term solutions. Arctic warming
    Nature Climate Change. 2016; 6(3): 234-235. https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2897
  • Schmale J, von Schneidemesser E, Dörrie A
    An integrated assessment method for sustainable transport system planning in a middle sized German city
    Sustainability. 2015; 7(2): 1329-1354. https://doi.org/10.3390/su7021329
  • Schmale J, Shindell D, von Schneidemesser E, Chabay I, Lawrence M
    Clean up our skies
    Nature. 2014; 515(7527): 335-337. https://doi.org/10.1038/515335a

Microbial activity monitoring by the Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System (MamSIOS)
Malard, L. A., Avila-Jimenez, M., Convey, P., Larose, C., Hodson, A., Ovreas, L., Schmale, J., Answar, M. Z., and Pearce, D. A.
in Orr et al. (eds) SESS report 2018: The State of Environmental Science in Svalbard - an annual report, 2019, www.sios-svalbard.org/SESSreport

Setting the aerosol baseline – an Antarctic opportunity
Schmale, J.
Antarctic Science, 29, 297, 2017

How important is black carbon for public health and climate?
Kutzner, R., Schmale, J., von Schneidemesser, E. 2016
Environmental Research Web

AMAP Assessment 2015: Black carbon and ozone as Arctic climate forcers.
Quinn, P. et al., 2015
Oslo, Norway: Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP); 2015. Report No.: 279710922, http://www.amap.no/documents/doc/AMAP-Assessment-2015-Black-carbon-and-ozone-as-Arctic-climate-forcers/1299

Arctic warming: Short-term solutions.
Schmale, J., 2015
Nature Clim Change, http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nclimate2897.html

The Arctic, Radiative forcing by black carbon in the Arctic in "State of the Climate in 2013".
Quinn, P. K., A. Stohl, A. Baklanov, M. Flanner, A. Herber, K. Kupiainen, K. S. Law, J. Schmale, S. Sharma, V. Vestreng, and K. Von Salzen, 2014
Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 95(7), 124-125.

New Directions: Support for integrated decision-making in air and climate policies - Development of a metrics-based information portal.
Schmale, J., E. von Schneidemesser, and J. Van Aardenne, 2014
Atmos. Environ., 90, 146-148.

Sub-Antarctic marine aerosol: dominant contributions from biogenic sources.
Schmale, J., J. Schneider, E. Nemitz, Y. S. Tang, U. Dragosits, T. D. Blackall, P. N. Trathan, G. J. Phillips, M. Sutton, and C. F. Braban, 2013
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8669-8694.

Source identification and airborne chemical characterisation of aerosol pollution from long-range transport over Greenland during POLARCAT summer campaign 2008.
Schmale, J., J. Schneider, G. Ancellet, B. Quennehen, A. Stohl, H. Sodemann, J. F. Burkhart, T. Hamburger, S. R. Arnold, A. Schwarzenboeck, S. Borrmann, and K. S. Law, 2011
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 10097-10123.

Physical and chemical properties of pollution aerosol particles transported from North America to Greenland as measured during the POLARCAT summer campaign.
Quennehen, B., A. Schwarzenboeck, J. Schmale, J. Schneider, H. Sodemann, A. Stohl, G. Ancellet, S. Crumeyrolle, and K. S. Law, 2011
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 10947-10963.

Airborne stratospheric ITCIMS measurements of SO2, HCl, and HNO3 in the aged plume of volcano Kasatochi.
Jurkat, T., C. Voigt, F. Arnold, H. Schlager, H. Aufmhoff, J. Schmale, J. Schneider, M. Lichtenstern, and A. Dornbrack, 2010
Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 115, doi://000284219100004

Aerosol layers from the 2008 eruptions of Mount Okmok and Mount Kasatochi: In situ upper troposphere and lower stratosphere measurements of sulfate and organics over Europe.
Schmale, J., J. Schneider, T. Jurkat, C. Voigt, H. Kalesse, M. Rautenhaus, M. Lichtenstern, H. Schlager, G. Ancellet, F. Arnold, M. Gerding, I. Mattis, M. Wendisch, and S. Borrmann, 2010, J. Geophys. Res., 115

In-situ observations of young contrails - overview and selected results from the CONCERT campaign.
Voigt, C., U. Schumann, T. Jurkat, D. Schauble, H. Schlager, A. Petzold, J. F. Gayet, M. Kramer, J. Schneider, S. Borrmann, J. Schmale, P. Jessberger, T. Hamburger, M. Lichtenstern, M. Scheibe, C. Gourbeyre, J. Meyer, M. Kubbeler, W. Frey, H. Kalesse, T. Butler, M. G. Lawrence, F. Holzapfel, F. Arnold, M. Wendisch, A. Dopelheuer, K. Gottschaldt, R. Baumann, M. Zoger, I. Solch, M. Rautenhaus, and A. Dornbrack, 2010
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 9039-9056. doi://000282429000023
Professional Experience:
  • Nov 2018 - current: Group leader of the Molecular Cluster and Particle Processes Group in the Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute
  • Nov 2014 - Oct 2018: Postdoctoral Researcher at Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute
  • May 2012 - Oct 2014: Project leader at the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies e.V., Potsdam, Germany, focus on: Research needs and pathways to policy implementation regarding short-lived climate-forcing air pollutants
  • Aug 2011 - Apr 2012: Postdoctoral researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany; research topic: aerosol characteristics in the Sub-Antarctic marine environment
  • Sep 2010 - Jan 2011: Visiting scientist at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh, Scotland; field deployment of aerosol and trace gas instrumentation on Bird Island, South Georgia
  • Jul 2007 - Jan 2008: Scientific staff at the Institute of Sustainable Waste Management and Technology, University of Leoben, Austria; project group leader: “Electrokinetic in-situ Remediation by Application of Diamond Electrodes”
  • Apr 2008 - Nov 2011: PhD at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Department of Particle Chemistry, Mainz, Germany; research topic: “Aircraft-based in-situ aerosol mass spectrometry: Chemical characterization and source identification of submicron particulate matter in the free and upper troposphere and lower stratosphere”
  • Mar 2006 - Jun 2007 : Master Studies “Environmental Technology – Sustainable Waste Management and Technology“, University of Leoben, Austria
  • Feb 2012 - Dec 2012: Foreign exchange to the Institute of “Chemical Engineering”, University of Concepción, Chile; collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institute Umsicht, Oberhausen, Germany, on local waste management strategies
  • Oct 2001 - Mar 2006: Bachelor Studies “Environmental Technology – Sustainable Waste Management and Technology“, University of Leoben, Austria
Teaching Experience
  • City-scale and regional drivers of environmental change: Anthropogenic emissions to water, soil and air, Potsdam Sustainability Summer School
  • Atmospheric Science in the Context of Global Change, University of Potsdam
  • What are air pollutants? Training for NGO workers
  • Teaching of exercises on cloud microphysics and tropospheric chemistry, University of Mainz (3 semesters)
Professional Engagements
  • since Mar 2016: co-chair of Working Group 2 of the international initiative 'air Pollution in the Arctic: Climate, Enviornment and Societies' (PACES), member of the scientific steering committee
  • since Dec 2015: member of the Atmospheric Working of the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC)
  • since Apr 2012: member of the Expert Group on black carbon and ozone of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP)
  • Mar 2011 - Mar 2012: Chair of the Research Activities Committee of the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists
  • Dissertation prize from the Faculty for Physics, Mathematics and Computer Science
  • Rektor Platzer Ring of the University of Leoben, Austria, for extraordinary achievements
  • International Arctic Science Committee, travel stipend to attend the International Polar Year Conference in Montreal, April 2012
  • Nordic Council of Ministers, participation in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme Conference, Copenhagen
  • Research Council of Norway, participation in the International Polar Year Conference Oslo
  • Pro Scientia, Austria
  • EU Alfa Program, internship at the Unit for Technological Development, Coronel, Chile
  • Joint Studies Scholarship of the University of Leoben, Austria, foreign exchange to Chile
  • Undergraduate scholarship for high performance of the University of Leoben, Austria
  • Association for Aerosol Research (GAeF)
  • American Geophysical Union (AGU)
  • Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS)
  • European Geophysical Union (EGU)
  • Association of Industrial Environmental Engineers, Leoben (VIU)
From December 2016 to March 2017, scientific teams from all over the world will board the Russian research vessel Akademik Treshnikov for an unprecedented expedition around Antarctica. During the Antartic Circumnavigation Expedition (ACE), researchers will work on a number of interrelated fields, from biology to climatology to oceanography, for the future of this continent.

The PSI led project (PI J. Schmale):

Study of Preindustrial-like Aerosol Climate Effects (ACE-SPACE)

Aerosol-cloud interactions are the least understood anthropogenic influence on climate change (IPCC, 2013.) A major cause of this limited understanding is the poorly quantified state of aerosols in the pristine preindustrial atmosphere, which defines the baseline against which anthropogenic effects are calculated. The uncertainty in aerosol induced radiative forcing (± 0.7 from a mean of -0.55 W/m2) is twice the uncertainty for CO2 (± 0.35, mean +1.68 W/m2). Also, models grossly underestimate cloud solar reflectance there, by as much as 30 W m-2 during summer. We suspect it partly being due to poor representation of aerosol-cloud interactions. This project aims at reducing the uncertainty in the effects of aerosols on climate change by exploring preindustrial like conditions which can almost only be found in the Southern Ocean. To achieve this, we will conduct ship-based measurements of aerosol microphysical and chemical characteristics as well as measurements of trace gases modulating particle characteristics and combine these with onboard remote sensing and satellite data of clouds to evaluate global climate models. The Southern Ocean is the most pristine aerosol environment on Earth, but almost the entire region remains unsampled. The ACE expedition provides a unique and unprecedented opportunity to prove or dismiss this hypothesis.

ACE-SPACE will advance our understanding of a key issue in climate science: climate-relevant aerosol processes. These processes regulate the ability of aerosol to form cloud condensation and ice nucleating particles and hence modify the radiative properties of clouds. Our interdisciplinary approach of connecting on board in-situ and remote sensing measurements, satellite observations and global climate modeling, will provide value that greatly exceeds the knowledge gain of in-situ observations alone. Expected results are:
  • Enhanced understanding of the aerosol properties, how trace gases modulate aerosol properties, and processes that are key to aerosol-cloud radiative forcing, including formation and growth of new particles and relevant chemical species e.g., from marine emissions.
  • Improving satellite retrieval over the Southern Ocean by linking in-situ cloud condensation and ice nuclei measurements through on board remote sensing with cloud droplet number concentrations from satellite observations.
  • Evaluating and constraining global climate model simulations through use of the measured aerosol and cloud data, and understanding the implications for radiative forcing and the related uncertainty.
The measurements will provide the first comprehensive data sets of circum-Antarctic aerosol and selected trace gases. Together with on board remote sensing, satellite retrievals and modelling studies they will significantly improve the definition of preindustrial aerosol baseline conditions from which anthropogenic climate effects can be derived.

Instrument List

Ship: Akademik Treshnikov
Treshnikov AARI.jpg


Who we are: