Zukünftige Batterien müssen mehr Energie speichern, länger leben und sicherer und umweltfreundlicher sein als Batterien heutiger Bauart. Die europäische Initiative BATTERY 2030+, an der sich auch das PSI beteiligt, soll bei der Erreichung dieser Ziele helfen.
The primary goal is the development of a safe, environmentally benign, and cost effective electrochemical energy storage system with significantly improved specific energy. The research work focuses equally on the scientific background essential for the development of new technologies and on the analysis of ageing and safety relevant aspects of current industrial batteries. The investigated systems include both lithium-ion and post-lithium-ion batteries.
Future batteries need to store more energy, have longer life, and be safer and more environmentally friendly than today's batteries. The European initiative BATTERY 2030+, in which PSI is participating, is intended to help achieve these goals.
Silicon is a long-standing candidate for replacing graphite as the active material in negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries, due to its significantly higher specific capacity. However, Si suffers from rapid capacity loss, as a result of the large volume expansion and contraction during lithation and de-lithiation. As an alternative to pure Si electrodes, Si could be used as a capacity-enhancing additive to graphite electrodes.
PSI researchers have identified a novel electrolyte additive, allowing extended voltage range of Ni-rich oxide full-cells, while keeping excellent performance. The instability of cathode–electrolyte interface causes the structural degradation of cathode active material and the electrolyte consumption, resulting in a rapid capacity fading and shortening battery life-time. The PSI-identified additive help to alleviate these problems and extend battery life-time.
Control of interfacial reactivity at high-voltage is a key to high-energy-density Li-ion batteries. 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate was investigated as an electrolyte additive to stabilize surface and bulk of both NCM851005 and graphite in the cell with upper cut-off voltage of 4.4 V vs Li+/Li. AEDB almost completely eliminated the “cross-talk” in the cell, by significantly reducing metal leaching from the cathode, preventing their deposition at the anode, and further electrolyte decomposition.
Les batteries du futur devront stocker davantage d’énergie, avoir une plus longue durée de vie et être plus sûres et plus écologiques que les batteries de conception actuelle. L’initiative européenne BATTERY 2030+, à laquelle le PSI participe aussi, doit permettre d’atteindre ces objectifs.
Relever les défis de l’avenir, pour le trafic routier suisse, va surtout demander des efforts de recherche. Aux grandes installations du PSI, des chimistes et des ingénieurs étudient comment rendre les propulsions des véhicules plus efficaces et moins polluantes.
Making Switzerland's road traffic fit for the future calls for research, first and foremost. In the large-scale research facilities of PSI, chemists and engineers are investigating how to improve the efficiency of motors and reduce their emissions.