Enviroment

17. September 2014

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“Airpocalypse” explained

Media Releases Environment Energy and Environment

The causes of China’s record level fine particulate pollution in winter 2013
At the beginning of 2013 a greyish-brown blanket of smog lay over large areas of China for several months. The fine particle pollution was higher by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude than the levels normally measured in Western Europe and the United States. An international team of researchers under the lead of the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI and the Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of the Sciences revealed the causes of the “airpocalypse”. The study published in the journal Nature also describes what steps are to be taken to prevent an environmental crisis of this kind in the future.

16. May 2014

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Cloud formation takes ingredients from the forest

Media Releases Energy and Environment Environment

Scientists know that clouds have a net cooling effect on our planet but the exact magnitude of that cooling effect is not exactly known. A new study by the CLOUD experiment (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) at CERN sheds light on the very first step of cloud formation, thereby contributing to a better understanding of the cloud-climate connection. The study was led by scientists at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and was published on 16 May 2014 in the journal Science


13. May 2014

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Unassuming rampant polluters on two wheels

Media Releases Energy and Environment Environment

In some towns small mopeds cause more air pollution than cars

Not cars or trucks, but mopeds with their two-stroke engines are the main source of fine particles and other air contaminants in many towns in Asia, Africa and southern Europe. This is revealed by the study of an international research team headed up by researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI. The reasons for the high emissions are the combustion properties in two-stroke engines and the overly lenient emission requirements for small two-wheelers. The study findings are to be published on 13 May 2014 in the journal Nature Communications.


21. March 2014

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Clay remains clay: how radionuclides sorb to the host rock in repositories

Energy and Environment Environment

Researchers from the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences joined forces within an EU project to investigate the basic properties of argillaceous rocks in a repository for high-level radioactive waste. As the results reveal, the insights gained so far for Opalinus Clay can be transferred also to the Boda Clay found in Hungary.


7. March 2014

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Measuring the ecological footprint

Energy and Environment Environment

With ecoinvent, the Paul Scherrer Institute and its partners at ETH Zurich, ETH Lausanne, Empa and Agroscope have been running the world’s leading database for life cycle inventories for over ten years. The latest ecoinvent version 3 collects new data in areas such as electricity generation, agriculture, transport, mining and chemicals. In the power sector, which is significant for life cycle assessments, the database now covers over 80 per cent of the global production. And technology that has not been considered thus far such as enhanced geothermal systems is to be included in ecoinvent from now on. The result is more accurate ecological assessments of products and services


20. January 2014

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Aerosol measurements: PSI researchers help to close regional gaps around the globe

Energy and Environment Environment

Aerosols are small particles in the atmosphere. They can influence the global climate by way of direct absorption or scattering of solar radiation, or by acting as nuclei for cloud formation. Efforts by scientists to exactly quantify these effects and then improve climate models are impeded by the lack of a global network of aerosol measurement stations. To remedy this situation, researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute to facilitate continuous aerosol measurements at sites where the paucity of data is the greatest.


17. December 2013

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Experiments in the clouds – how soot influences the climate

Media Releases Energy and Environment Environment

PSI-researcher Martin Gysel receives prestigious European funding (ERC Consolidator Grant) for his studies on the role of soot in cloud formation and global warming.

6. October 2013

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Particle formation in the atmosphere – further aspect unveiled via the CLOUD experiment at CERN

Media Releases Energy and Environment Environment

Clouds consist of cloud droplets that are formed from tiny particles floating in the atmosphere. How these particles develop, however, largely remains a mystery. The formation of particles from amines and sulphuric acid has now been described for the first time – a milestone in atmospheric research.

23. May 2013

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Waste incineration: the last word in cleanliness?

Energy and Environment Environment

Household waste always used to end up left untreated in landfills, and the effects of this practice are well-known: these waste disposal sites were quite often ecological "death zones". With the incineration of municipal waste, there was some mitigation of this problem: despite the overall increase in quantities of waste, the areas claimed by landfill have been limited in recent decades thanks to waste recycling and incineration. However, waste incineration remains far from a panacea. Some combustion products that are already present in the burnt materials or that arise just during the combustion process itself are harmful to human health and the environment and some of them still find their way out of waste incineration plants and into landfill sites as their final destination.


10. May 2013

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Air quality in the megacity Paris better than expected

Energy and Environment Environment

Megacities are often perceived by the public to be major sources of air pollution, which affect their surroundings as well. However, recent studies show that the environmental credentials of cities with over one million inhabitants are not so bad after all. An international team of researchers, including scientists from the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), has now confirmed, on the basis of aerosol measurements carried out in Paris, that so-called post-industrial cities affect the air quality of their immediate surroundings far less than might be thought.


27. February 2013

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Ice and snow – the great unknowns of science

Energy and Environment Environment

Ice and snow have fundamental significance for our climate. Generally speaking, one assumes that science knows everything that is important about such everyday phenomena. Yet, as soon as one looks at the whole at the molecular level, many questions remain unanswered. This knowledge is essential for predicting the future of our planet. Thorsten Bartels-Rausch in an interview about the great unknowns.

16. October 2012

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X-rays provide insights into volcanic processes

Media Releases Research Using Synchrotron Light Environment User Experiments

Experiments performed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) investigate processes inside volcanic materials that determine whether a volcano will erupt violently or mildly. In the experiments, scientists heated small pieces of volcanic material similarly to conditions present at the beginning of a volcanic eruption. They used X-rays from the SLS to observe, in real time, what happens to the rock as it goes from the solid to the molten state.

13. June 2012

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Top Science at the Top of Europe

Energy and Environment Environment

Das PSI ist in der Jubiläumsausstellung auf dem Jungfraujoch prominent vertreten

75 Jahre Sphinx-Observatoirum und 100 Jahre Jungfraubahnen: Dies ist der Anlass für eine Ausstellung der internationalen Stiftung Hochalpine Forschungsstationen Jungfraujoch und Gornergrat, die im Frühjahr eröffnet wurde.
This news release is only available in German.

22. May 2012

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Reconstruction of atmospheric lead concentrations in Russia since 1680

Media Releases Energy and Environment Environment

A research team from the Paul Scherrer Institute has reconstructed the concentration record of lead in the atmosphere in Russia since 1680. The results demonstrate a significant increase in the atmospheric lead concentrations since the 1930s and a significant reduction since the 1970s.

25. August 2011

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Klimaforschung am Teilchenbeschleuniger: Beschreibung der Aerosolneubildung muss revidiert werden

Media Releases Energy and Environment Environment

Vom Menschen verursachte Aerosole wirken in der Atmosphäre kühlend: Klimaforscher nehmen an, dass sie einen Grossteil des anthropogenen Treibhauseffekts kompensieren. Allerdings müssen sich die Partikel zum Teil in der Atmosphäre erst neu bilden. Diesen bisher kaum untersuchten Prozess nimmt das CLOUD-Experiment am CERN, an dem auch Forscher des Paul Scherrer Instituts beteiligt sind, unter die Lupe. Dabei wurde erstmals ein Teilchenbeschleuniger für die Untersuchung von Vorgängen in der Atmosphäre eingesetzt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen: die Beschreibungen der Aerosolbildung in Klimamodellen muss revidiert werden.
This news release is only available in German.

21. February 2011

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Russ lässt Himalaya-Gletscher schneller schmelzen

Media Releases Energy and Environment Environment

Forschende des Paul Scherrer Instituts haben zusammen mit Kollegen aus China und den USA gezeigt, dass die Klimaerwärmung nicht alleine für die Gletscherschmelze im Himalaya verantwortlich ist. Auch Russ, der auf dem Gletscher abgelagert wird, trägt dazu bei. Der Russ entsteht, wenn Öl oder Holz verbrannt werden; Wind transportiert ihn dann in den Himalaya.
This news release is only available in German.

19. April 2010

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The mass concentration of volcanic ash from Iceland in European airspace

Media Releases Energy and Environment Environment

Data of the Paul Scherrer Institute from the High-Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch yield important information.
The eruption of the volcano Eyjafjallajokull in Iceland has stalled flight traffic in large parts of Europe. Decision makers had to base their decisions mainly on model calculations for the volcanic plume dispersion. How dangerous is this volcanic ash layer for planes?

18. January 2010

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News from the smog chamber: mechanisms of particle formation in the atmosphere unveiledt

Media Releases Environment Energy and Environment

Up to the present time, the nucleation or new formation of particles in the atmosphere has been a great enigma. Until recently, research was based on the assumption that sulphuric acid played the central role in particle formation. However, laboratory experiments and field tests have consistently provided conflicting results. In the lab, considerably higher concentrations of sulphuric acid are required for nucleation to take place than in the atmosphere itself. Now scientists from the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) have found out the cause for these conflicting results from their smog chamber. These findings will advance climate research to a significant degree.

10. December 2009

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Mystery solved: how fine particulates are formed in the air

Media Releases Environment Energy and Environment

Researchers from the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Colorado and 29 other research institutions in various countries have investigated the composition of the organic constituents of the fine particulates found in various regions of the world, and have identified the original substances from which they are formed in each case. For the first time ever, this has enabled them to explain the role played by the individual components of emissions in the development of fine particulates.

19. December 2008

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Temperature response in the Altai lags solar forcing

Media Releases Energy and Environment Environment

Publication in Geophysical Research Letters. New results from climate research using ice cores from the Siberian Altai. The observation that the reconstructed temperatures followed the solar forcing with a delay of 10 to 30 years is particularly interesting.

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